Specialty crop and minor-use pesticide prioritization set for 2019 by IR-4

Participants at the 2018 IR-4 Food Use Workshop identified the most important research projects for the 2019 IR-4 food-use research program.

October 2, 2018 - Author: Anthony VanWoerkom, John Wise, Bernard Zandstra

Blueberries

The IR-4 Project (Interregional Research Project No.4) has been facilitating registration of sustainable pest management technology for specialty crops and minor uses. Since 1963, the IR-4 Project has been the major resource for supplying pest management tools for specialty crop growers by developing research data to support new EPA tolerances and labeled product uses. Specialty crop research needs are prioritized each year during a national workshop since resources are limited, according to IR-4.

Research priority A’s for the year 2019 field program for fruits, vegetables, nuts, field and oil crops, herbs and other miscellaneous crops in the United States and Canada were selected at the Food Use Workshop held Sept. 18–21, 2018, in St. Louis, Missouri. About 130 people attended the two-day meeting: specialty crop researchers, extension specialists, representatives of commodity and industry groups across the country and personnel from EPA, USDA, IR-4 plus the AAFC (Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada that conducts Canadian counterpart of minor use program) and PMRA (Pest Management Regulatory Agency, i.e., Canadian counterpart of U.S. EPA). For Michigan’s fruit and vegetable interest, the workshop was attended by Michigan State University’s Bernard Zandstra, Anthony VanWoerkom, John Wise, Mary Hausbeck and Lynnae Jess. Representing Michigan grower’s group was Dave Trinka (blueberry).

The prioritization process focused on the most critical pest management needs from all disciplines for each commodity. Participants were provided with a list of 183 pesticides “nominated” with desired priority of A prior to the food-use workshop. As a group, they ranked products based on availability and efficacy of alternative pest management tools (including ongoing projects for the same need and resistance management), damage potential of target pests, performance and crop safety of the chemical in managing the target pests, compatibility of the proposed chemical candidate with Integrated Pest Management, uses currently covered by Section 18 emergency exemptions, and harmonization implications due to lack of international MRLs (Maximum Residue Limits).

Based on projected budget appropriations for IR-4 in 2019, only 46 A priority projects throughout the disciplines were selected by consensus. Sixty-six projects were downgraded to B priority. An A priority guarantees IR-4 to begin the field residue program during the following season and complete it within 30 months. The time line will be shortened when IR-4 joins the company’s petition submission schedule with the expectation that a complete data package be submitted to the EPA in 16-24 months.

In addition to the above projects that require pesticide residue analysis under GLP, eight “H+” (high priority plus) efficacy/crop safety projects were selected, because potential registrants want to see the data first before IR-4 conducts full residue studies, or IR-4 needs to screen pest control products for new pests, the PPWS (pest problems without solution) projects.

Thirty-one A priority projects important for Michigan were selected. In addition, six candidate H+ projects for Michigan growers were identified (see Table 2). Any “B” priority projects must be upgraded to A priority either by an Priority Upgrade Proposal (PUP) with good justification or by regional upgrade, i.e., the crops or the pests are limited to a particular region. At present, IR-4 may consider 10 upgrades should the budgetary situation become more favorable.

The following new candidate priority A projects listed are preliminary until affirmed at the IR-4 national research planning meeting Oct. 30-Nov. 2, 2018. A complete listing can be found on the IR-4 website.

Table 1. Priority "A" projects for Michigan fruits and vegetables.

Group

Commodity

Chemical

Reasons for need

01AB

Beet (sugar)

NMG787

Sugarbeet nematodes; need to reduce nematode populations; no other non-fumigant nematicides registered.

01AB

Carrot

ISM-555

Seed corn maggot; diazinon (organophosphate) replacement.

01AB

Carrot

NMG787

Nematodes; nematode management alternatives are limited, and they are not adequately managed without fumigants; are an important problem in large processing fields.

01CD

Sweet potato

Mandestrobin (S-2200)

Ceratocystis fimbriata causing black rot of sweet potato; there are few effective active ingredients registered for field and post-harvest control of black rot; only Mertect can be applied in the field, but on seed roots options are needed to protect the slips which are used to plant production fields; seed roots are bedded to generate the slips and can easily rot after fungicide application; using fungicides at the slip stage via transplant water or soil directed application, at or shortly after planting, is needed for black rot control.

01CD

Sweet potato (post-harvest)

Tebuconazole

Rhizopus soft rot (rhizopus stolonifer), black rot (ceratocystis fimbriata) - there are no effective options for postharvest use.

04-16A

Lettuce (head and leaf) (greenhouse)

Picarbutrazox

Downy mildew

04-16B

Watercress

Esfenvalerate

Leafhoppers; low control of leafhopper by current insecticide (imidacloprid).

06B

Bean (succulent shelled)

Tolfenpyrad

Thrips

08-10A

Tomato (greenhouse)

Dimethomorph + ametoctradin

Late blight and phytophthora

08-10A

Tomato (greenhouse)

Flutianil

Powdery mildew

08-10BC

Pepper (bell and non-bell)

Cyflumetofen

Spider mites (tetranychus spp.)

09A

Cantaloupe

Cyflumetofen

Twospotted spider mite, southern red mite

09A

Cantaloupe

Flonicamid

Plant/stink bugs, thrips

09B

Cucumber

Cyflumetofen

Twospotted spider mite, southern red mite

09B

Cucumber (greenhouse)

Na11630

Thrips, whiteflies, aphids

11-10

Apple

Quinclorac

Field and hedge bindweed; Canada thistle; barnyardgrass, crabgrass; horsenettle; quinclorac is safer to use in a crop than other group 4 herbicides; it is the most effective herbicide for bindweed control.

11-10

Pear

Quinclorac

Field and hedge bindweed; Canada thistle; barnyardgrass, crabgrass; horsenettle; quinclorac is safer to use in a crop than other group 4 herbicides; it is the most effective herbicide for bindweed control.

13-07B

Blueberry

Sabadilla

Spotted wing drosophila; blueberry industry in need of additional chemistries to control spotted wing drosophila resistance.

13-07B

Blueberry

Spinosad

Spotted wing drosophila (SWD) (drosophila suzukii); need to reduce large-scale damage to unripe fruit; need effective control of SWD, reduced pesticide use, financially competitive alternative; from Liburd (fl) me-too: need more tools for SWD management, and can't rely exclusively on broad-spectrum pesticides:08/18.

13-07F

Grape

Diquat

Annual weeds (per requestor Diquat covers a similar weed spectrum as Paraquat; per mfg, Paraquat is more effective on grasses and has a broader spectrum of activity; Diquat is not as effective, depending on target species).

13-07G

Strawberry

Benzovindiflupyr

Anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum acutatum, after recent resistance to qoi fungicides; per ny me-too, this disease occurs sporadically, as spring temps during production are usually not high enough for disease development:08/18; per md me-too, this active ingredient has been found to be very effective against multiple Colletotrichum spp., including c. Acutatum, under lab conditions; from ca me-too: strong efficacy among SDHIS.

13-07G

Strawberry

Trifloxysulfuron

Green kyllinga; this weed is a growing problem in strawberry row middles, and no currently registered herbicides control it.

13-07G

Strawberry (greenhouse)

Boscalid + pyraclostrobin

Powdery mildew; need additional control options for the greenhouse industry; also for botrytis; need more products for rotation/resistance management.

13-07G

Strawberry (non-bearing)

Fluazinam

Botrytis and anthracnose; need products for use only in nursery plant production, that are not used in fruit production fields; too few MOA’s are available to control these two diseases, and fluazinam is effective on both.

13-07H

Cranberry

Tebuconazole

Fairy ring, fruit rot

13-07H

Cranberry

Carfentrazone-ethyl

Broadleaf weeds (a dormant weed control option is needed)

19A

Basil (greenhouse)

Picarbutrazox

Downy mildew; currently not much is registered for downy control on greenhouse basil.

19A

Basil (greenhouse)

Flonicamid

Aphids, whitefly; per me-too: is a good product and is soft on beneficials.

22B

Celery (greenhouse transplant, field)

Ethaboxam

Pythium root rot

99

Hops

Sulfoxaflor

Hop aphid Phorodon humuli (schrank); heteroptera: aphididae

99

Mint

Pyridate

Pigweed species and kochia; a shorter pre-harvest interval is needed to accommodate application in double-cut mint production.

 

Table 2. High priority needs for efficacy/crop safety projects for Michigan fruits and vegetables.

Group

Commodity

Chemical

Reasons for need

01AB

Carrot

Fluopyram

Northern root lesion nematode (pratylenchus penetrans), northern root knot nematode (meloidogyne incognita var. Inc.)

01AB

Ginseng

Picarbutrazox

PHHytophthora root rot; more active ingredients needed for long growing season.

13-07F

Grape

Clopyralid

Canada thistle, clover, dandelion, perennial sowthistle, horsenettle; it is very difficult to control many composite, legume, and nightshade weeds in grape; pre-emergence herbicides do not control them, and they are not controlled well with other post herbicides.

13-07H

Cranberry

Sulfentrazone

EEarly emergent weeds; need product to control sedges.

22A

Asparagus

Fludioxonil + pydiflumetofen

FFusarium; fusarium is an ongoing, chronic problem for the industry.

22A

Asparagus

Thiophanate methyl

Fusarium; is a chronic and costly problem.

 

Tags: ir-4, msu extension, specialty crops


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