References for protecting and enhancing pollinators in urban landscapes.

May 1, 2019

Alarcón, R. and G. DeGrandi-Hoffman. 2009. Fungicides can reduce, hinder pollination potential of honey bees. Western Farm Press March 7, 2009.

Anonymous. 2019. Million pollinator garden challenge. National pollinator garden network.

Artz, D.R. and T.L. Pitts-Singer. 2014. Effects of fungicide and adjuvant sprays on nesting behavior in two managed solitary bees, Osmia lignaria and Megachile rotundata. PLoS ONE. 10:e0135688.

Ascher, J. S. and J. Pickering. 2015. Discover Life bee species guide and world checklist (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Anthophila).

Ayers, G. and J. Harman. 1992. Bee Forage of North America and the Potential for Planting for Bees. In: The Hive and the Honey Bee (J. M. Graham Ed.). Dadant and Sons Inc. Hamilton, Illinois.

Baker A, and D.A. Potter. 2018. Colonization and usage of eight native milkweed (Asclepias) species by monarch butterflies and bees in urban garden settings. J Insect Conserv. 22: 405 – 418.

Bargar, T.A. 2012. Risk assessment for adult butterflies exposed to the mosquito control pesticide naled. Env. Tox. and Chem. 31: 885 – 891.

Berenbaum, M. Bernhardt, P. Buchmann, S. Calderone, N. W. Goldstein, P, Inouye, D. W. Kevan, P. Kremen, C. Mendellin, R. A. Ricketts, T. Robinson, G. E. Snow, A. M. Swinton, S. M. Thien, and F.C. Thompson. 2007. Status of pollinators in North America. The Nat. Acad. Press, Washington, D.C.

Biddinger, D. and K. Demchak. 2016. Pollinators and pesticide sprays during bloom in fruit plantings.

Biddinger, D. J. and E.G. Rajotte. 2015. Integrated pest and pollinator management: adding a new dimension to an accepted paradigm. Curr. Opin. Insect Sci. 10:204-209.

Biddinger D.J., Robertson J.L., Mullin C., Frazier J., Ashcraft S.A., Rajotte E.G., Joshi N.K., Vaughn M. 2013. Comparative toxicities and synergism of apple orchard pesticides to Apis mellifera (L.) and Osmia cornifrons (Radoszkowski). PLoS One 9: e72587. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0072587

Bouseman, J. and J. Sternburg. 2001. Field Guide to the Butterflies of Illinois. Illinois Natural History Survey Manual 9.

Bouseman, J, J. Sternburg and J. Wiker. 2006. Field Guide to the Skipper Butterflies of Illinois. Illinois Natural History Survey Manual 11.

Caron, D.M. 1979. Effects of some ULV mosquito abatement insecticides on honey bees. J. Econ. Entomol. 72: 148 - 151

Comba, L,. Corbet, S., Hunt, L. and B. Warren. 1999. Flowers, nectar and insect visits: evaluating British plant species for pollinator-friendly gardens. Ann. Botany 8: 369 – 383.

Corbet, S., Bee, J., Dasmahapatra, K., Gale, S., Gorringe, E., LeFerla, B., Moorhouse, T., Trevail, A., VanBergen, Y. and M. Vorontsova. 2001. Native or exotic? Double or single? Evaluating plants for pollinator-friendly gardens. Ann. Bot. 87: 219 – 231.

Cowles, R. S. and Eitzer, B. D. 2017. Residues of neonicotinoid insecticides in pollen and nectar from model plants. J. Environ. Hort. 35(1): 24 – 34.

Cranshaw, W. 2010. Pest and disease control using horticultural oils.

Cregg, B. and R. Schutzki. 2006. Recommended Alternatives to Ash Trees for Michigan’s Lower Peninsula. Michigan State University Extension Bulletin E-2925. Or see

Cresswell, J.E., N. Desneux and D. vanEngelsdorp. 2012. Dietary traces of neonicotinoid pesticides as a cause of population declines in honey bees: and evaluation by Hill’s epidemiological criteria. Pest Manag. Sci. 68: 819 – 827.

Cressey, D. 2017. Neonics vs bees. Nature 551: 156 – 158.

Cutting, B.T. and D.W. Tallamy. 2015. An evaluation of butterfly gardens for restoring habitat for the monarch butterfly (Lepidoptera: Danaidae). Environ. Entomol. 44: 1328 – 1335.

Davidson, J. and M.J. Raupp. 2014. Managing Insects and Mites on Woody Plants: an IPM Approach. Univ. of Maryland. 3rd ed. Publ. by Tree Care Industry Association, Londonderry, NH, 177 pp.

DiPrisco, G. Cavaleire, V, Desiderato, A., Varricchio, P., Caprio, E., Nazzi, F., Gargiulo, G. and F. Pennacchio. 2013. Neonicotinoid clothianidin adversely affects insect immunity and promotes replication of a viral pathogen in honey bees. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 110: 18466 – 18471.

Dively, G.P., M.S. Embrey, A. Kamel, D.J. Hawthorn and J.S. Pettis. 2015. Assessment of chronic sublethal effects of imidacloprid on honey bee colony health. PLOS one. 10: e0118748.

Douglas, Matthew M. and J.M. Douglas. 2005. Butterflies of the Great Lakes Region. Univ. of Michigan Press.
Elsner, D. Growing milkweeds for monarch butterflies. 2015. MSUE News, May 26th.

Garbuzov, M. and F. Ratnieks. 2014. Quantifying variation among garden plants in attractiveness to bees and other flower-visiting insects. Funct. Ecol. 28: 364 – 374.

Gill, R. J., O. Ramos-Rodriguez, and N.E. Raine. 2012. Combined pesticide exposure severely affects individual- and colony-level traits in bees. Nat. 491: 105-108.

Giovanetti, M. and A. Giovanna. 2011. Honey bee interest in flowers with anemophilous characteristics: first notes on handling time and routine on Fraxinus ornus and Castanea sativa.

Gitlin, S. 2016. How to control mosquitoes without killing pollinators and other important wildlife. Arlington Regional Master Naturalists.

Hoffman, G., Alarcon R., and D. Sammataro. 2009. The Importance of Microbes in Nutrition and Health of Honey Bee Colonies Part-2: Factors Affecting the Microbial Community in Honey Bee Colonies. American Bee Journal 149: 583-584.

Gallai, N., Salles, J.-M., Settele, J., and B. E. Vaissière. 2009. Economic valuation of the vulnerability of world agriculture confronted with pollinator decline. Ecol. Econ. 68, 810–821 (2009). doi: 10.1016/j.ecolecon.2008.06.014.

Gills, S. and Raup, M. 1990. Use of insecticidal soap and neem for the control of azalea lacebug.University of Maryland Cooperative Extension Service.

Goddard, M.A., Dougill, A.J. and Benton, T.G. 2010. Scaling up from gardens: biodiversity conservation in urban environments. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 25, 90–98.

Goulson, D., Nicholls, E., Botias, C., and E.L. Rotheray. 2015. Bee declines driven by combined stress from parasites, pesticides, and lack of flowers. Science 347: 1435 – 1444.

Hokkanen, H.M.T., Zeng, Q.Q. and I. Menzler-Hokkanen. 2003. Assessing the impacts of Metarhizium and Beauveria on bumblebees. In H.M.T. Hokkanen, A.E. Hajek, eds. Environmental impacts on microbial insecticides. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers. Pp. 63-71.

Johnson, R. M. 2015. Honey bee toxicology. Annu. Rev. Entomol 60:415–434.

Johnson, W.T. and H.H. Lyon. 1991. Insects that feed on trees and shrubs. Cornell University Press.

Kogan, M. 1998. Integrated pest management: historical perspectives and contemporary developments. Ann. Rev. Entomol. 43: 243 – 270.

Kraemer, M.E. and F.D. Favi. 2005. Flower phenology and pollen choice of Osmia lignaria (Hymenoptera : Megachilidae) in central Virginia. Environ. Entomol. 34:1593-1605.

Krupke, C., Hunt, G., Eitzer, B., Andino, G., and K. Given. 2012. Multiple routes of pesticide exposure for honey bees living near agricultural fields. PLoSONE 7(1): e29268. Doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0029268.

Larson, J.L., Keshelmer, A.J. and D.A. Potter. 2014. Pollinator assemblages on dandelions and white clover in urban and suburban lawns. J. Insect Conserv. DOI 10.1007/s10841-014-9694-9

Larson, J.L., Redmond, C.T., and D.A. Potter. 2013. Assessing Insecticide Hazard to Bumble Bees Foraging on Flowering Weeds in Treated Lawns. PLoS ONE 8(6): e66375. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0066375

Lawrence, T. 2015. Pollination and protecting bees and other pollinators. Washington State University Extension Bulletin FS174E.

Lindter, P. 2014. Garden Plants for Honey Bees. Wicwas Press, LLC.

Long, E.Y. and C.H> Krupka. 2016. Non-cultivated plants present a season-long route of pesticide exposure for honey bees. NATURE COMMUNICATIONS|7:11629|DOI: 10.1038/ncomms11629|

Lovell, J.H. 1926, Honey Plants of North America. A.I. Root Co. Medina, OH.

Mach, B.M.. Bandarenko, S. and D.A. Potter. 2018. Uptake and dissipation of neonicotinoid residues in nectar and foliage of systemically treated woody landscape plants. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 37: 860 – 870.

Mach, B.M. and D.A. Potter. 2018. Quantifying bee assemblages and attractiveness of flowering woody landscape plants for urban pollinator conservation. PLOS ONE |

Mach, B.M. and D.A. Potter. 2016. Woody ornamental plants for urban bee conservation. University of Kentucky unpublished data, available by request.

MacIvor, J.S., Cabral, J.M. and L. Packer. 2014. Pollen specialization by solitary bees in an urban landscape. Urban Ecosyst. 17: 139 – 147.

Mader, E. and N.L. Adamson. 2012. Organic-approved pesticides minimizing risks to bees, invertebrate conservation fact sheet, The Xerces Society for Invertebrate Conservation.

McCullough, D.G., Poland, T.M., Anuleqicz, A.C., Lewis, P. and D. Cappaert. 2011. Evaluation of Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) control provided by emamectin benzoate and two neonicotinoid insecticides, one and two seasons after treatment. J. Econ. Entomol. 10: 1599 – 1612.

Miller, A., Bowers, L., Dyer, D., and E. Jerkins (2014). Determination of the residues of imidacloprid and its metabolites 5-hydroxy imidacloprid and imidacloprid olefin in bee relevant matrices collected from cherry trees following foliar application of imidacloprid over two successive years. Study ID EBNTY008. Bayer Crop Science, Research Triangle Park, NC. MRID 49535601.

Miller, R.D. 1989. The use of horticultural oils and insecticidal soaps for control of insect pests of amenity plants. Journal of Arboriculture 15(11)257-262.

Nazzi, F., Brown, S.P., Annoscia, D., Del Piccolo, F., Di Prisco, G., and P.Varricchio. 2012. Synergistic parasite-pathogen interactions mediated by host immunity can drive the collapse of honey bee colonies. PLoS Pathog 8(6): e1002735. doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1002735.

Nielsen, D.G., Muilenburg, V.L. and D.A. Herms. 2011. Interspecific variation in resistance of Asian, European, and North American birches (Betula spp.) to bronze birch borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae). Environ. Entomol 40: 648 – 653.

Nielsen, Mogens C. 1999. Michigan butterflies and skippers. MSU Extension Bulletin E-2675.

Oberhauser, K.S., S.A. Manweler, R. Lelich, M. Blank, R.V. Batalden and A. De Anda. 2009. Impacts of ultra-low volume resmethrin applications on nan-target insects. J. Amer. Mosq. Con. Assoc. 25: 83- 93.

Oertel, E. 1980. Nectar and pollen plants. In Beekeeping in the United States, Agr. Handbook No. 335.

Pecenka, J.R. and J.G. Lundgren. 2015. Non-target effects of clothianidin and monarch butterflies. Sci. Nat. 102: 19.

Pellett, F. (1947). American honey plants. New York: Orange Judd Publishing Company.
Pilling, E. and P. Jepson. 2006. Synergism between EBI fungicides and a pyrethroid insecticide in the honey bee (Apis mellifera). Pest Man. Sci. 39: 293 – 297.

Pollinator Health Task Force. 2015. National strategy to promote the health of honey bees and other pollinators.

Pundt, L. 2004. Insecticidal Soap. University of Connecticut Fact Sheet:

Raupp, M.J., Koehler, C.S. and J.A. Davidson. 1992. Advances in implementing intergrated pest management for woody landscape plants. Ann. Rev. Entomol. 37: 561 – 585.

Raupp, M.J., Shrewsbury, P.M. and D.A. Herms. 2010. Ecology of Herbivorous arthropods in urban landscapes. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 55: 19 – 38.

Redmond, C.T. and D.A. Potter. 2017. Chlorantraniliprole: reduced-risk insecticide for controlling insect pests of woody ornamentals with low hazard to bees. Arboriculture & Urban Forestry 43: 242 – 256.

Rinkevich, F.D., J.W. Margotta, V. Pokhrel, T.W. Walker, R.Hl Vaeth, W.C. Hoffman, B.K. Fritz, R.G. Dank, T.E. Rinderer, R.L. Aldridge, K.L. Linthicum, J.A. Ottea and K.B. Healy. 2017. Limited impacts of truck-based ultra-low-volume applications of mosquito adulticides on mortality in honey bees (Apis mellifera). Bull. Entomol. Res. 107: 724 – 733.

Rollings, R. 2016. Which ‘bee-friendly’ plants attract the most bees?

Rollings, R. 2019. Quantification of the attractiveness of bee-friendly plants to bees.

Rosenkranz, P., Aumeier, P., and B. Ziegelmann. 2010. Biology and control of Varroa destructor. J. Invertebr. Pathol. 103: S96 – S119. doi: 10.1016/j.jip.2009.07.016.

Rundlof, M., Andersson, S., Bommarco, R. Fries, I. Hederstrom, V., Herbertsson, L., Jonnson, O., Klatt, B., Pederse, T., Yourstone, J. and H. Smith. 2015. Seed coating with a neonicotinoid insecticide negatively affects wild bees. Nature Letter. Doi:10.1038/nature14420.

Salvato, M. H. (2001). Influence of mosquito control chemicals on butterflies (Nymphalidae, Lycaenidae, Hesperiidae) of the lower Florida Keys. Journal-Lepidopterists Society, 55(1), 8-14.

Sanford, M.T. 2011. Protecting honey bees from pesticides. University of Florida IFAS Extension CIR534. file:///C:/Users/David%20Smitley/Desktop/mosquito%20abatment%20and%20pollinators/ProtectingBeesFromPesticidesUFcir534.pdf

Schmehl, D. Teal, P., Frazier, J. and C. Grozinger. 2014. Genomic analysis of the interaction between pesticide exposure and nutrition in honey bees (Apis mellifera). J. Insect Physiol. 71: 177 – 190.

Shackleton, K. and F.L.W. Ratnieks (2015). Garden varieties: how attractive are recommended garden plants to butterflies? J. Insect Cons. ISSN 1366-638X.

Sikora, A., P. Michotap and M. Kelm. 2016. Flowering plants preferred by bymblebees (Bombus Latr.) in the botanical garden of medicinal plants in Wroclaw. J. Apic. Sci. 60: 59 – 67.

Sikora, A., Pawel, M. and M. Kelm. 2016. Flowering plants preferred by bumblebees (Bombus Latr.) in the botanical garden of medicinal plants in Wroclaw. J. Apic. Sci. 60: 59 – 67.

Smart, M. D., R.S. Cornman, D.D. Iwanowicz, M. McDermott-Kubeczko, J.S. Pettis, M.S. Spivak, andC.R.V. Otto. 2017. A Comparison of Honey Bee-Collected Pollen From Working Agricultural Lands Using Light Microscopy and ITS Metabarcoding. Faculty Publications: Department of Entomology. 506.

Steinhauer, N., Rennich, K., Lee, K., Pettis, J., Tarp, D., Rangel, J., Caron, D., Sagili, R., Skinner, J., Wilson, M., Wilkes, J. Delaplane, S., Rose, R, and D. VanEngelsdorp. 2015. Colony loss 2014 – 2015: Preliminary Results.

Stoner, K.A., R.S. Cowles, A. Nurse and B.D. Eitzer. 2019. Tracking pesticide residues to a plant genus using palynology in pollen trapped from honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) at ornamental plant nurseries. Environ. Entomol. 48: 351 – 362.

Tew, J. 2006. Some Ohio nectar and pollen producing plants, Fact Sheet HYG-2168-98. Wooster, OH: Ohio State University Extension.

Van der Zee, R., A. Gray, L Pisa, and T. de Rijk. 2015. An observational study of honey bee colony winter losses and their association with Varroa destructor, neonicotinoids and other fisk factors. PLoS ONE 10: e0131611.
VanEngelsdorp, D., Evans, D., Donovall, L., Mullin, C., Frazier, M., Frazier, J., Tarppy, D., Hayes, J., and J. Pettis. 2009. “Entombed Pollen”: A new condition in honey bee colonies associated with increased risk of colony mortality. J. Invertebr. Pathol. 101: 147–149.

Rennich, K., Spleen, A., Andree, M., Snyder, R., Lee, K., Roccasecca, K., Wilson, M., Wilkes, J., Lengerich, E. and J. Pettis. 2012. A national survery of managed honey bee 2010-2011 winter colony losses in the USA: results from the bee informed partnership. J. Apicult. Res. 51: 115 – 124.

Wegulo, S. and M. Gleason. 2001. Fungal cankers of trees. Iowa State University Extension Bulletin SUL 11.

Yang, E.C., Chang, H.C., Wu, W.Y. and Y. W. Chen. 2012. Impaired olfactory associative behavior of honey bee workers due to contamination of imidacloprid in the larval stage. PLOS ONE 7. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0049472.

Michigan State University Michigan State University Close Menu button Menu and Search button Open Close