Shady lawn alternatives
Make your shady area the most beautiful place in your yard.
Two words that don’t go together in a garden’s vocabulary are “shade” and “lawn.” Grasses used in lawns fancy themselves as prairie plants – the more sun they can get, the happier they are. There is no such thing as a shade-loving lawn grass. There are some that could be considered tolerant, but that is much different than loving.
As trees grow larger and more are planted, the lawn begins to disappear. Seasonal sunlight shifts also cause the shade to lengthen and deepen, resulting in grass permanently retreating. Once the number of hours of direct sun sinks below six hours a day, the grass is gone or so sparse it looks unattractive. Unless you prefer bare soil, the choices are simple: cut down or trim back trees, or find shady lawn alternatives to fill the empty areas. Homes are more valuable and attractive with mature trees, so removing them or pruning them back may not be the best decision.
There are choices to explore when repurposing the former lawn area. You may begin by making the mulch rings around the trees larger, beyond the dripline, or simply connecting mulched trees to make one large bed. Plants in beds created beneath a tree’s canopy may encounter competition from tree roots. Another choice could involve several beds with shade-loving plants with pathways wandering between them. Because of the lack of sunlight, concentrate on attractive plants and not flowers. With your new design, there will not be much in the way of plants to remove to begin the job. Get a soil test to determine if there are nutrients needed or the soil pH needs to be adjusted before plants are installed. Buy a Michigan State University Extension soil test self-mailer for $25 online at www.msusoiltest.com.
Design your garden on paper before the first plants are purchased. Decide where paths and beds will be. Research your plant choices to make sure they will work in your new garden. When preparing the area, do not cover existing tree roots with topsoil. Try to work around the surface roots or simply don’t plant in that location. Plants with shallow roots, like hostas, will adapt to this type of growing condition on their own.
Groundcovers are small plants that grow together to cover an area. Gardeners are only limited in the type of plants by their own imagination. Traditional choices include myrtle or periwinkle (Vinca minor), bugleweed (Ajuga species), lily-of-the-valley (Convallaria majalis), English ivy (Hedra helix), Bishop’s weed or goutweed (Aegopodium podagaria) and pachysandra (Pachysandra terminalis). You might choose a plant that is particularly adapted to growing among tree roots such as sweet woodruff (Galium odoratum) and barrenwort or fairy wings (Epimedium spp.). Plants such as lilyturf (Lirope spp.) can be used to retain a slope, yet look like grass. Check to see if lilyturf is winter hardy in your area. Even the lowly violet could be used.
From a design standpoint, the same plant repeated many times over gives a static continuity. The plants listed above are small plants that may never exceed 12-18 inches in height. They may also be planted to grow around larger plants.
Consider that some of the plants listed above, like goutweed, may become invasive and therefore undesirable, especially if surrounded by a wooded area. Pachysandra does best in acidic soil, so it is important to know the soil pH before planting. These groundcovers will not cover huge areas; they work best in smaller beds. It will be important to keep them watered and well-weeded to prevent completion until they fill in.
Taller plants could be planted in groups and some, like hostas, come in a wide variety of sizes, leaf colors and patterns. Other choices include astilbe, Japanese painted fern, European ginger and Ligularia. While Japanese painted fern, astilbe, ligularia and ginger are critter-resistant, hostas are prone to deer damage and may require regular repellant. Designing with taller plants will help break up the flat plane of short groundcovers.
Made in the shade
Shady areas are well-suited for native plants, too. If choosing native shade plants, make sure your type of soil will work with these forest dwellers. They appreciate a humus-organic soil with decayed leaves used as mulch. Common choices include ostrich and cinnamon ferns, jack-in-the-pulpit, Canadian ginger, May apples, trillium, Solomon’s seal and false Solomon’s seal, spring beauties and moss. A vine for shady areas is Virginia creeper. These are plants that are well-adapted to their environment and rarely require fertilizing. Some of these are classed as spring ephemerals, meaning they bloom and disappear by the end of spring to reappear again in the spring. Trilliums are very attractive to deer.
Complete the transformation
Be sure to mulch around plants with woodchips or broken down leaves (leaf mold) to prevent loss of soil moisture. Add paths using woodchips, pea gravel or pavers to surround planting beds. Pavers or bricks could work as edges of beds or as path material. Consider a bench to sit on or several chairs. Add some vertical interest with a small fountain, bird bath, trellis or some attractive garden art.
For more information on a wide variety of Smart Gardening articles, or to find out about Smart Gardening classes and events, visit www.migarden.msu.edu.
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