Violence incidence in Food Supply Chains: the case of Nigerian Maize Traders


June 1, 2023 - Carolina M. Vargas, Lenis Saweda O. Liverpool-Tasie, and Thomas Reardon

Key Findings

  • The increase in the presence of non-state armed actors (NSAA) has increased violence-related shocks.
  • Female traders have a higher chance of experiencing a violence shock. Women traders were more vulnerable to farmer-herder conflict and banditry than to Boko Haram.
  • Both large and small traders are affected similarly by political and ethnic-related conflict.
  • Urban traders have a higher probability of experiencing a violence shock, particularly for Boko Haram and banditry.
  • There was a lot of NSAA at the origin (procure) and the destination (supply) of traders’ procurement and supply


Accessibility Questions:

For questions about accessibility and/or if you need additional accommodations for a specific document, please send an email to ANR Communications & Marketing at