Field Crops Webinar Series - Controlling Weeds in Soybeans

March 27, 2017

MSU Extension Field Crops Webinar Series 2017 Session 2, 2/20/17 Title: Controlling Weeds in Soybeans, Presenter: Dr. Christy Sprague

Video Transcript

Good evening everyone this is Jim Haslett with Michigan State University Extension in unison Michigan I'm going to be your host tonight for this feel cross-question our this is the second program in a series of seven webinars this year I want to introduce our our speakers tonight I Dr Christy Sprague Christy is a with Michigan State University and she is a professor of science in that department of plant soil and microbial science it's a well good afternoon evening everyone today we're going to talk a little bit about some of the different we control issues that we might have and really more specifically I want to talk about some of the new soybean traits that are out there and how some of these new soybean traits might actually help or you know some things we need to think about as far as where they might that as far as we control in Michigan in respect to some that we need challenges that we do have we can think about how some of these newer traits. Some of the new herbicides actually might some of our other rotations whether it's corn or even and some of the other crops that we do grow so when we look at our current commercial I soybean tree obviously there's the ninth year mostly beans we still have a pretty good market of knowledge you know soybeans and Michigan and then probably a majority of our girls have been growing rounder pretty soybeans whether there are the Roundup ready to yield or just straight run or pretty soybeans with some of the resistant we dish use and some of the tougher to control we don't use We've seen a little bit of a rise in Libby links waiting to me see some of that this next year and one of the things that I'm the focus a little bit more on this year or on this presentation is to talk a little bit about the runner pretty to extend soybeans with its new commercial as they should and some of the different factors we need to think about when we think about using these. So we've been through weed control. So with the ninety I'm also beans obviously we do still have some markets in Michigan and one of the reasons little some of the guys are actually growing non-human soybeans is because of some of the soybean premiums that they can have we've got a couple different. Outlets with zeal and instead citizens are all of it or that many times those non G.M.O. soybeans will actually bring a premium and a lot of times we'll see that when we buy those soybeans as far as seed a lot of time the seed costs are typically a quite a bit lower. Usually these soybean treats are much more viable for growers that don't have a herbicide resistant wheat problem and we do have several resistant weeds in Michigan and many times when we talk about growing beans we really like to have there was think about growing them in a conventional tillage system and a lot of times that's because of the herbicide resistant or sweet or mere still issues that we do have and as some of you indicated that's how many are bigger problems in growing soybeans So just kind of a quick look at what our herbicide resistant weeds are in Michigan and you can see we've got a wide range of them and those you guys that are probably helping have in corn definitely have probably seen a lot of actors in years of Stener tracing resistant things like lambs quarters and rate leaving some of the different species as far as some of the guys that are going on to mostly beans one of the herbicide So we generally use a lot are the LS inhibitors to control some of those sweet species so with some of the a loss resistant wheat problems whether it's common ragweed or lamb supporters or even the horse weed and some of the other pig which species that's one of the issues we do see a lot when growers are trying to grow non G.M. soybeans. One thing I do want to mention is we do every year what get several We control programs for the most soybeans and we do post those online. So for those growers that are growing number of thinking about growing not beans we do have posted on. Dot com And we've been doing this probably since two thousand and ten so we kind of look at different we control strategies herbicide treatments look at how do we control what the economic or what the cost of those from Cyprus grams are as well as a yield and I cannot make that turn so just another resource for you guys that are actually growing now and you must be in trees. So with the run of pretty soybeans or five percent resistant soybeans as we mentioned before it is still pretty much a viable option for many of our Michigan story being makers one of the things that we do you really promote and have been talking about for a number of years just to make sure that we integrate other we control options in addition to quite the same while we're going to run a pretty soybeans and I also want to just kind of indicate you know as we start adding different herbicide one of the ones we want to be careful of is not to rely too heavily on those Ellison her sides are what we would consider the group to herbicides because as you saw from a couple small screens before we do see a lot of us resistance and some of the species that we have in Michigan in particular coming right we happen to be a huge problem and then as we start looking at some of the pigweed species that I'll talk about in a minute. That life is state as well as a loss resistance is showing up in some of those. When we do talk about growing life to say that resists of soybeans we just don't want to rely on like to say and many times some of the things that we really want to think about is using a Korean merchants or soil pied herbicide to control some of those tougher and those things might be Liam's quarters there's a lot of pre-marriage herbicides they do provide good control plants courters and some of the different pigweed species so. Again what those priests do is really help reduce that we population that's out there some of the pressure it also may help you delay that life it's an application and when we think about life a say applications in those around a pretty soybeans are generally shooting for we are about four inches tall and that's really recommendations as far as making sure that we get good we control but it also has been a recommendation from the standpoint of making sure that we preserve all of the soybean yield that is actually out there so obviously would have run a pretty soybeans to one of the issues that we didn't have one we have life estate. And multiple resistant weeds and right now in Michigan we do have four different wheat species. Have life as well I should say or resistant and in many cases these are also resistant to the ELSE inhibiting herbicides probably one of the biggest ones that we're dealing with is the horse we had as you guys indicated before that's one of the tougher weeds we do have some populations have some low levels of resistance to both Life state and some of their illness and have areas like classic and first rate what one of the bigger problems that we're starting to see is some or these oddball quickly species that are much more prevalent in the southern you know it states or also in the Midwest things like Palmer Amaranth and water which are becoming much more resistant and in fact one of the things that's been a little bit tougher is that we're really starting to see more resistance this pile on to some of these different weed species and in particular with we actually have a species that is resistant to what we would consider S three separate her side of action with one of those actually being actors and so as you start thinking about how you would manage some of these weeds if they showed up on your farm really it's trying to figure out the best way to diversify some of these we controls treatment. So I thought I'd do is share with you some of the results of information that has come into diagnostic clinic and also through some of our scouting throughout the state and just to kind of let you know where some of these more problematic weeds that are starting to show up are actually being confirmed in Michigan so you can see heres here's kind of where we know that we have which you guys if you've been on the web in ours before have heard me talk a little bit more about but it's been a it's a particular problem and a huge challenge to manage and soybeans it can also be very difficult to manage in many of our other crops and including corn just also wanted to point out here that we do have satellite County highlighted because there are some Pariente populations there and right now we're looking at testing to see if they're actually glyphosate and or ala three assistants. Another thing I wanted to share with you is that as I mentioned before PALMER It is a problem but it's not only in Michigan in there some of the other Midwest states are starting start to see it as more of a problem and if you look at this picture you can see in the back ground there's a field on the left hand side and you can see these things that actually look like little scrubs that's actually picked Homer Emery at that showing up in some C.R.P. fields and just want to make you aware of that in some areas of the Midwest they just started to find some of this stuff and what had happened is some of the new seed sources or new sources are actually coming from seed that had some new people innings and. Mostly that it showed up in Iowa and Minnesota and some of those different plantings were basically mixes for. Quail habitat or pollinator habitat and really there's been a lot of effort recently trying to figure out how do we make sure that we don't get some of these can. I mean you could see it lots into some of the different states and so there's been quite a bit of effort at both at the national level and local level as far as we know this last year there wasn't any steer people were. Seen it was brought in so that's good but we just one of those things we want to be on the lookout for because as we start to see some of those things again and see contamination in a big way that some of these odd strange weeds can actually show up so right now in the Midwest you can see difficultly home or was not a problem in many of these states but you can see in these red counties in Iowa and also in Minnesota These are some of the areas where they did see that. Contaminated sea for some of the C.R.P. planning so we're actually showed up so that is a big concern So just again to keep your eyes open for that. The other week that we see a lot of showing up over this last year is been water this is also another pigweed species. And many times we have quite a sate coupled with a loss resistant so again the group or to resistance and and it is a very tough week to control it does come up a little bit later and it does continually emerge very similar to what we see with Palmer and so again very challenging with some of these newer pigweed species that we're seeing in Michigan. When we look at where we know that we do have multiple resistant water you can see the Orange County as we do not know that the ones that are highlighted kind of in gray We do know that we have water have populations that are resistant to the Allison hitters and you can kind of see those checkered marked. Counties and those are actually counties where we're doing some screening to find out if we have multiple resistant. One of the key things if we're looking at soybeans particularly in Iran or pretty system what we would be doing to try to manage these water how populations is a real I'm very heavily on what we consider is a group fourteen herbicides things like power and authority reemergence and flocks during Copa poster mergence. One thing it do you want to mention is as we start seeing some of these populations show up there are several populations in the Midwest that are resistant to these herbicides So that's probably just the next step of what we're going to see so as we start seeing these issues we might want to be thinking about what are some of the other ways we can man the G. suites and not necessarily relying totally on our own a pretty soybean and her side so we can use in those systems. That's some of the you mentioned horse weed is a huge issue that we're seeing throughout Michigan in Minot is increasingly widespread and you can see just here's a picture of a few fields that we did see and very heavily invested with horse weed. User just kind of a quick shot where some of the different works we've seen pulls up come in and where we've had either like to say and or life to save me a less resistance and horse we tested I would say you know as we see it's not all the counties in Michigan but it support a good number and I think probably some of the counties that are highlighted we probably still have that issue in just samples have not come in. One of the bigger issues that we have with or sweetest horse we can pretty much be at any particular stage almost any time of the year what I thought I would do is show you a few different pictures some of these different horsemeat populations and you see here this is September twenty fourth we have anywhere from I wrote was that up to one that is flowering November third some newer Bert gents one that's bull ting maybe six we have some new emergency conceits ones that are a little bit bigger. And one of the problems that we do have with this is is trying to actually try to figure out the best way to manage some of these things and we do have a lot of resistance and this particular weed. When we've talked about management steps before we've talked about trying to control the emerged worse week prior to planting and in general is typically consider know to wheat because once that soil is just urban A lot of times we can manage that we do a little bit better so tillage is one way to help. Actually manage this we need one of the things that we've seen is a lot more popularity popularity with vertical tillage tools these tools really are not that effective because there don't really disturb the upper to few inches of that soil what they do is kind of just to kind of a little bit of a slicing in a little bit of a. Movement from side to side so that's one of those things that we want to be aware of. So again we want to control horsemeat we're sweet prior planning that can be done with tillage or can also be done with an effective burn down treatment and we talk about burnout treatments and no till there are some very effective ones in our current go I should say to run a priest systems we can use things like two forty yester prior to planning soybeans as long as you have seven days between that application and actually planning soybeans or there's products such as sharpen that are pretty good and then we do have some newer products that can be used with. Some of the different soybean traits that we'll be talking about in a few minutes one of the important things is also residual herbicides are extremely important to help manage horsemeat and one of the reasons for that is kind of its prolonged emergence. Just thought I'd show you some of our plots this last year this happens to be. I'm so I beams that were planted in the So these are pictures that were taken on June thirteenth we do have the runner pretty close to forty so no reason to on the lot inside and just putting something in it as simple as much abuse and you can see how we've been able to help manage that population even though you do see some that are breaking through we have lowered that population overall so it's residual herbicides are extremely important one of the issues we do have is we do have several fields that have some pretty high horse with populations and with those a lot of times we see a lot of emergency later in the season and some of our current strategies and run to produce so it's just going to work and I thought I just picked up a couple of our data slides from this last year and you can see how over time we see reduced control in the majority of that is because we have a lot who are becoming out so this is just looking at some of the research will products that we do have whether it's much abuse in the old Suncor there's a lot of different generic products but our combining it with much B.S. and Spartan which is the component of authority authority and you can see all of them provide pretty good control about mid May Then again we used quite that same two forty S and burn down over time we start to see this kind of decrease and control and a lot of that is that that's her wrist types are lasting long enough to stop a new emergence and we're really starting to see more and more later emergence and really by sixty days after treatment we only had one particular product that lasted long enough and then by mid August again we're not looking at very good control so the main point here is that we do need to have some post emergence options to help manage horse weed and this is again just an example of kind of an untreated versus one of those sprint with residual reduced populations but we still have some more sweet that is out there. The biggest problem is if we are growing on a pretty or not and you mostly things we just don't have any effect to post regions options with a lot of our resistant works we populations that we see throughout the state. So what that really means is we need to start looking at some of the alternative options we're looking at growing soybeans and those who alternative options are essentially to grow liberty links with beans or possibly the neurons are pretty to extend So I thought I'd spend a little bit of time talking about some of these different soybean strategies or technologies and what are some of the things that you really need to be thinking about one of these is actually the Liberty link soybeans again and these are things that have been out there for a while not widely used because everybody knows how to grow sweepings with ready. These were commercialized in two thousand and nine and historically we've actually had some pretty good yielding or high yielding varieties in Michigan and it does provide us not turned up to manage some of these resistant we get shoes that we've been seeing in Michigan whether it's like to say or multiple resistant wheat one of the challenges that we do have is when we talk to growers and you say Well have you ever try to mesh that well we kind of tried out some of the issues is that many times or if you're trying to use the Liberty link system just like they would use round out and they're different so we really need to think about how we would best manage to be with the Liberty one exploiting and really a systems approach is required and what I have here is just kind of a comparison between the life that Satan who FOS an eight or Liberty book nonselective herbicides but the biggest difference is like to say to systemic So it's obviously going to be better on perennials where with liberty or good foster me it's a contact herbicide So basically that herbicide needs to be in contact with that tissue we have to have good coverage and when we're doing that we need to make sure that arson. All humans are up there generally we want to make sure that we have at least fifteen yards per acre or more to make sure that we have good coverage of those we species typically will see that liberty works much quicker than what we see with with life estate around up and usually by two to three days you can see what what the impact on some of those weeds are liberty or glucosamine is a little bit weaker and crosses a lamp cord and then went like this it is so those are some of those weeds where again one talked about trying to look at systems approach we do have some pre-emergent herbicides that will give us some a good start to control and then optimum we Heights generally want to be around that two to three inch weed high for application were many times people really push that limit for the wife to say we're liberty like soybeans we are pretty much allowed two different applications post emergence and you can see what the total amount is they're actually looking at trying to get an increase in the amount that can be used on these beans for two thousand and seventeen which might give us a little bit more flexibility as far as trying to control some of the quite state resistant weeds and maybe try to get some control of some of those once they get out of hand and get a little bit larger but in general we're looking at either a twenty nine to thirty six ounce use rate for that first application and we can follow it up in season with twenty nine ounces a couple of things I do want to point out about liberty using liberty and liberty links why beans are one of the things that's extremely important is to make sure that we use them himself because really what that does is it helps improve we control in particular it really helps control things like what leaf Also Lance quarter this is just some results some more rates of liberty in just showing the differences that you can see as far as increased control would be addition of ammonium selfie. And as you look at this you can see that. Really we do see with that addition of ammonium soft and increased control either would just be an ice water or even with tap water and what that does us that ammonium soffit helps not only tie up some of the cat ions such as calcium and so forth that we might tap water but probably does have calcium deposits on the leaf surface and that ammonia helps tie that up so the goof and the fascinator liberty work spider. The other thing that we need to be aware of is when we're using liberty and liberty like soybeans is that the time of Liberty application can actually affect how well it works. So this is just all the results that came out of Minnesota but it's some really good results in showing the differences in the time of day so if you look at the bottom of the graph you can see the applications were made anywhere from six in the morning all the way up to midnight and as you can see after six P.M. there was a huge drop off in we control at some of these. Rates of Liberty and again these are looking at a few bit lower rates to show some of those differences so the key thing is when we're looking at using some of these different systems as to know what the restrictions are and maybe what some of the challenges are and one of the things is if you're going to be using spring liberty in a way to really explain system you need to be making sure that those applications occur in the way of Jay and that's why one of the restrictions is not to apply it to ours prior to sunset or later because we do see that reduced activity which will definitely affect your WE control results when we think about using liberty in our strategies to optimize how we control everyone soybeans and we're really looking at trying to control smaller weeds. Quiet herbicides. You hope keep those weeds back a little bit reducing those populations and allowing for it to lay in the initial liberty applications and we are limited to those two in crop applications at this time up to sixty five ounces total for each one of those so it does give us a little bit more flexibility than what we do see with some of our current. Herbicides such as spikes are where we can only make one application so just a few pictures in untreated verses using a pre-marriage herbicide followed by Liberty and see how well we control is another thing that actually helps with wheat control it's kind of hearing those grow with it so you can see thirty inches compared to fifteen inches. For soybeans and that does help with the control so when we think about managing weeds whether it's a horse we population or a water hamper Palmeri meant looking at some of those management steps again with things like horse Weed who want to make sure that we are controlling any of those weeds prior to playing soybeans and again we can use to Leghorn effective burned out treatment we really want to be using a pretty rigid herbicide to give us some residual control those weeds with liberty we want to make sure we're making applications when the weeds are on the smaller side and then when we have some of these tougher to control we it's like water hemp or Palmer and we have a lot of times we can add things like a tool or warrant which are group fourteen herbicides that will help. Give us some prior research will control later in the season for some so help prevent emergence of some of those later emerging species and in the case so. If we can have some escapes we do have that option to come back with liberty we're looking at around to praise soybeans and have. Wife say resistance a lot of times when we have very limited research resources to come back. The next. So we've been treated I'd like to mention is that right or pretty to extend soybeans these are the new soybeans that are being sold out there pretty much most the different seed companies will have the right to pretty to extend soybeans in the two thousand and seventeen year there was a few that were popular this last year and however there was not any I can bet occasions that were allowed on those beans so this is the first year we've got the herbicide to actually go with those so it means we'll talk a little bit about what some of the use restrictions are for these and things to think about depending on where you're at in the States so with the run are pretty to extend soybeans what they are is they are soybeans that are resistant not only to you brought up or what I did say but they're also resistant to DI Kamba. When we look at those soybeans again you could sprayed I can over the top of those and not see any soybean injury but they are not cross resistant to herbicides like two forty or even status which does contain I can buy you can see the types of interview symptoms you would get by spraying either one of those herbicides are crossed the room to pretty to extend soybeans. Currently there are only a couple different formulations that are actually labelled for use are in these are two I came before Malaysians for use over the top of Roundup Ready to extend soybeans while we can use many of the other types of herbicides that we have if we're looking at using DI camp over the top of these herbicides you can only use registered or label I can before you wish and one of these is the extent of Max again this is a straight talking about formulation that is being sold by months and own in the other one is ingenious which is another dye came before Malaysia and that can be used over the top of the round of three to extend soybeans. As far as application use rates and timings will talk about extent. Max first and basically we can use this as a pre-planned herbicide so for looking at. Potentially something to help with life is it resistant or multiple resistant words we control we can use that extended Max to help control that we eat basically from a pre-planned application you can use either twenty two or forty four ounces of extended Max So it's one or the other. If we look at in crop the maximum use rate we can use is twenty two ounces so that's the highest use rate you can use and that's equivalent to a half a pound of kamma. You can make two of those applications in the season but it has to be. Only up to the R two stage so you can apply it up through our one but not up to our two and then the total amount that can be used per year is a fluid ounces. With basically the same timings but use rates are a little bit different it's a different formulations so instead of twenty two ounces being the half the engineer rate is twelve point eight fluid ounces that can be applied preplanned that can be applied twice preplan but you cannot double that rate. As what you would with the extend for extended Max the end crop application B twelve point eight fluid ounces for a total of twenty five point six ounces. And a total per year is fifty one point two There are some current challenges in restrictions with these different formulations for two thousand and seventeen some of these. Restrictions are changing every day and we'll talk a little bit about that the application requirements for that using these products. As most of your where you probably used some of the different I can before me affiliations in the past you realize that there can be some issue. WHAT THE So let's talk about the application requirements we'll talk a little bit about take mixtures with these new formulation speak some of the issues that can happen with my camera there are going to be proper requirements for using. Different formulations in the run up pretty to extend soybeans or talk about that and probably one of the key things I want to highlight is protection of some of our sensitive areas in crops and we'll spend some time with that. With the label application requirements there are a few things that you need to be aware of. And these are these are very explicitly written out in the label as far as spray volume it needs a spray minimum sprayed on them of ten gallons per acre and that is for either by Campbell formulation ground speeds we're looking at fifteen mile a pop per hour or less spray boom height not to exceed twenty four inches above that target paster canopy and one of the bigger things is it can only be used I can before Malaysians can only be applied with approved nozzles if you look at them in label you will see that the T. jet T T I N one ten zero four novels with a max pressure of sixty three P.S.I.I. is basically the approved nozzle on that label there have been additional proof and one of the things that's a lot different with these different. These new formulations I can't before Malaysians for use and run a pretty too expensive beans as if there's going to be what we would consider maybe a living label and that as a girl or is using some of these different products they will need to check the websites for each one of the product within seven days of making that application and that really tells us what are some of the new requirements and these things are changing every day so as of about a week and a half ago the only approved nozzle was a T T I want to know Ford's stance and there are. Newer nozzles but we're literally looking at something that was really extremely course droplet sizes to make sure that we don't have off target movement in the form of Cura these are the two different web sites you can look out the extent of the applications for requirements and again that would be for the extended max and then there's a new take mix dot com for the ingenious and here are just kind of some snapshots of those formulation of those different websites these are some of the new or prove nozzles for each one of the products so on the left hand side just gives an example of some of the extended Macs approved nozzles and right now I believe there's. Currently engine it just has a T T I and these are just things that are changing every every day the other thing that's really important and when we start looking at this generally we've talked about making sure that we take mix a lot of our herbicides with other herbicides to make sure that we get good effectively control and also to reduce the selection pressure for for her beside resistant weeds with the extended Max and Genia basically we can only use approved mixes so that's another thing that will have to be. You need to make sure that those approved take mixes are on those what we would consider those websites are those looking labels and again those websites are going to be extremely important if you're thinking about using these different products on the run or pretty to extend soybeans in only the products that are listed there can be used so you know in general in the past we've talked about that you can take mix a lot of different products together in this case the only way you can take mix with either extend a max or ingenious is if it is approved on these different websites which is part of the label and if we look right now on those different websites there are some different herbicides on there but if you get close. Well you won't see what I did say yet they're working on that there are Supreme urgency herbicides on the extent of Max label and then there are several adjutants that can be used with the ingenious label the only thing that currently is up there are some of the additives or edge of insect could be added to that So again all of these need to be on the label before using the field. Quickly go past this really quick mention that one of the first challenges that we do have is that there are these buffer requirements that are now tied with using either one of these herbicides so. If we were to use extended Max or engine you know we need to have a down wind buffer for looking at either one of these products at the rate that would typically be used which would be about a half a pound which should be equal in to twenty two opposite of the extent of Max who are twelve point. Eight X. talk point eight ounces of the ingenious. That we need a hundred to one foot down when buffer if we're using extended Max pre-emergent. And we want to use that higher rate we would need a two hundred twenty foot buffer so that really limits us on some of the different things so here's an example. Some of our fields in Michigan certainly we don't look at super heated fields that we might see in some of the other states many times some of our fields are anywhere from thirty to forty acres or less we do have some larger ones but many times we also have issues with yards and houses that have been put up in. Different. Sickly fence rows and things that we need to be aware of so if we were to look at applying extended accept that twenty two ounce rate and let's say that wind direction is from the east we would need to make sure that we. We had one hundred ten foot buffer on the west side of that field but again there are some different stipulations where you let's say of corn with a right up to it you may not have to worry about that buffer but those are things that you need to take take into account so for example with this field it's a twenty eight acre field we would be basically looking at three point two acres of buffer Now again it's just it down one buffer so you need to think about well how do I control the weeds in that buffer the other thing is let's say the wind direction change just be the wind changes direction and it's coming from it's just let's say it's coming from the southwest and it's going towards the northeast you're basically looking at two sides of that field and that buffer is going to increase in size. And what if we decide that we're going to use that prayer mergence and rainy is a higher use rate and we need that two hundred twenty foot offer that I came a treatable acreage goes down in the buffer acres goes up so it's one of those things that we need to think about as far as management when we're using these systems and many times as you see a lot of times some of the. Resistance it shoes or issues that we do have and coming in those areas along the edge of the field so for example this is a soybean field in seem. Or still wind up along the line of the road and that ditch bank in that case we would need to have that one hundred ten foot buffer if the wind was coming from the opposite direction. So one of the things that we need to worry about as we also need to make sure that we control those weeds in that area when we do that would potentially wait for a change in wind direction. You know really thinking about what are some of the other ways we might build a can to. Control the weeds in that area. Maybe potentially spray a buffer area first. So with that we start working at some of these different things that we need to do for using some of these herbicides the logistics of trying to get them down makes it a lot more difficult so the only thing that I really wanted to mention and spend a little bit of time on is really the protection of sensitive areas and crops so for those of you realize that I can buy is a plant growth regulator herbicide you've probably seen whether it's soybeans or other crops or. Other probably fleets that can be injured by that product and here's just an example of a soybean field that had a taint contamination of camera and you could see all the soybean cupping that happened there generally are not target injury symptoms that we do see are either from paper drift or volatility particles drift or taint contamination when we're talking about about. A lot of the older guy came up formulations were pretty volatile these newer formulations are supposed to be less volatile so they're trying to reduce that paper dropped but with these newer formulations we're probably not going to be able to get rid of that particle Jura So that's again why some of those application requirements are in place whether it's through high speeds and so forth that will talk a little bit about that another potential way that we. Can get non-target injury from these I came back with patients from ten contamination. So quick both extended Max and with. A couple things that you cannot do and you cannot add ammonium salt they so we've talked about adding it Moneim sulfate to life in C. to run up in the past and also to liberty with the extent to max or the engineered formulations. The addition of only in so they won't be allowed and the main reason for that is what that does is it increases the potential for volatile zation or paper wrapped so what really happens is that those ammonium. Particles actually neg A What's going on as far as the vapor grip in the extent of Max or. The salt in the ingenius that basically helps keep those plants for those who are besides from not. Being volatile. So with the formulation that will hopefully help with the reduction of paper drip but the other one that we really need to worry about is managing particle drift and in many cases that is the number one cause of our target movement so I guess it's going to be important to follow the application to requirements whether it's not the selection spray volume travel speed which we've talked about another thing is to make sure that we don't apply when the wind is blowing towards an adjacent well crop many of the costs that are are probably crops or a lot of our budget book crops some of our trees gardens so forth those are going to be sensitive so it's important to make sure that we know what is around us and which way the wind is blowing with these different formulations there are some recommendations for only applying when the wind speeds are between three in ten miles per hour. Basically not to apply when the wind speeds exceed fifty mph and with the extended match anything less than three miles per hour they don't want you to apply and there are some pretty strict. Directions as far as within Genia But the big thing is to make sure that we're not applying either one of these products during a temperature inversion and really when we're talking about a temperature inversion really looking at. What happens it can cause some of this particle dropped in general when we look at the Earth's atmosphere usually we have warmer air closer to the Earth's surface and the cooler air is up above there so you can see that from the picture of a lot when an inversion happens what we really see it a lot of times more common in the evenings particularly nights with limited cover and when there are basically little to no winds and some of those are versions can continue in the morning what happens with the temperature inversion is basically that warm air is up at the upper level or up in the atmosphere and the cooler temperatures are closer to the Earth's surface and what can happen if you spray during a temperature inversion is that the spray particles are actually trapped because they're not allowed to go through that warm air and what can happen is once that wind starts to move the spray particles can move to another field causing potentially off target injury from those die Campbell applications. Another issue that we have is the potential for a spray tan contamination and there are specific instructions on both the extent of Max and engineer labels as far as clean outs many of them are making sure that you clean all of the hoses and nozzles and triple rinsing is extremely important and it does take at least rinsing three times to make sure that we do get rid of some of those residues that may be found in the spray tank one of the things I wanted to show you or share with you is what can happen with even very small amounts to die camp so these are some different plots that we had you can see the untreated up in the upper left hand corner and then we sprayed one one thousandth of a you straight. At the V three before timing B six V eight timing and are one timing and you can still be particularly later in the season we see a lot more injury in these pictures are all taken at the same stage later. In the season so you can see we do have a little bit of recovery from the earlier obligations but later you can see that there are so we Things are definitely hurt we can see that with a lot of our different sensitive props. And this just really shows you what can happen as far as you know particularly with those later applications so the blue bars or the one one thousand and three the red bars or the one one hundred that came up and you can see here that. You can see that you know production can happen pretty substantially and particularly as you go later in the season so we've seen that also with some of our sugar reports and you can see that it really doesn't take a whole lot if you were to think of a eight ounces and Me and eight let's say a water bottle of contamination in a one one thousand gallon spray tank you can see some significant fuller injury to non runner pretty to extend soybeans you may not see you know loss but you will see some injury let's say just one gallon of that spray solution is left and there you would see some significant you know Boss So these are some things to keep in mind also to remember that we have a very diverse system and Michigan just showing you that all those. Crops that are highlighted or basically circled by yellow are sensitive to dye CAMPBELL So it's important know where those are at so it's going to be extremely important to protect those sensitive areas in crops from spray drift and take contamination and it's really the responsibility of the applicator and with some of the issues for example here some. Injury to our sugar beets from. So I can buy and without some of the tolerance a certain some of these crops that we normally wouldn't use to camp and a lot of times those processors aren't going to accept the crop just to find out things I want to mention. There is a website called Drift watch if you go to Michigan drift watchdog org You can actually register your old as a sensitive area whether it's a organic. Or an extent field and so forth. So this is one way that can help manage and then probably one of the biggest things is to make sure that if you are going to run a break to extend soybeans communicate with your neighbors you want to make sure that you know who's planning where you want to make sure that you're not applying these anywhere you're some sort of crop. So if we look at this and we're looking at the runner ready to extend soybeans one of the things that you want to mention is we want to make sure that we're looking at. Kind of at risk management taking into consideration that we might have small target issues so we want to make sure that if there is a chance for that. That we might want to think about using something else so balancing that we control with the off target issues probably where these are going to fit best are going to be where we have resistant weeds and it can be important and it's as we've seen that buffer zone if there's a chance of damage to a sensitive crop or some sort of area it's going to be passed if we use another system potentially the Liberty link so it means or if you're going to grow around a prey to extent soybeans and you've got some sort of crops or other things around there you may not even when he used I can but try to manage some other way. With that just want to follow up with make sure we always follow the label particularly as we look at some of these new traits that are coming aboard and if you go to our Web site. I missed it we start we do have kind of a question and answer hopefully to kind of simplify some of the things that we talked about and what I've been are so with that I will go ahead and put up our website for you to. To so you can jot that down and gives you a. Lot of our information or we control guide and so forth will be on here and I think with I don't go ahead no. Try to maybe insert couple questions a couple minutes or what Jim you know what he has Chrissy do you see the Q. and A icon on your screen. Yeah we go if you click on that you'll see we have a few questions have been typed in OK on the first one given a normal your brain follow along the sands oil how much after scene can be applied. Corn before it affects next year soybeans in general probably in a lonely soil we're probably looking. Probably are looking at maybe a pound and a half again there is that rainfall or the application come off and we you'll see from a post emergency in point really. I believe it's twelve inches for corn and also June fifteenth so generally want to make sure those actors and applications happen before that again also pay attention your get well again it matter we can go a little bit higher but generally prefer that pond and have. See we also talk about the effects of ph of the carrier. To. Two herbicides as far as the PH of the carrier whether it's water solutions in general things like I could say will actually drop the PH of those. Solution so. It just really depends on what herbicide you're using so in some cases you may need to adjust that ph and the ammonium sulphate will help do that as well as hope to care of some of the other issues. Eric. Good point and which is going to be exactly the same thing as extend a max that has been approved on a federal we're looking at. We haven't got the Michigan registration Yeah I'm assuming will have it this week but next upin would just be Dupont's version of the Basically why synced extend a max of vapor get for months and also say nice rate same restrictions. That good question can of course when I don't be effectively controlled with run a pretty to extend soybeans where snow is a very tough lead in Cuba. May help a little bit but it's still not going to be the best fact that's OK with C. question about liberty effectiveness and effective is affected by time of day what about temperature sky conditions sunny vs overcast. Sunny conditions are probably going to be a little get a little bit better results and definitely cooler temperatures you know early spring sometimes we do see some last half could see but generally when we're in that sixty five. And hired typically when we've been making those post emergence that locations in Libya link soybeans they would work well. Past sites of action herbicides for fall grasses. And one. Fall grasses you see probably looking at more of. Things like Blue Grass. Like to see it still works well if we get it before it starts to head out. And the problems we have with some of the Fall grasses is once things like in a bluegrass when we start to see we have some issues. In tight control in Polk we've been running very soybeans occur we've got a whole section of that in the back of the I miss you we control guy that gives you some options. Now with the runner pretty to extend soybeans out presidential you know their option but some of the elephant behaviors like classic have worked well in the past so we'll turn it back over to you guys. Thank you Christine and thank you all for their questions.

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