Soils & Composting

MSU Extension supports composting as an environmentally sustainable practice for homes, farms, businesses and industry. Whether products are grown naturally or manufactured, composting is the easiest and least expensive solution to managing organic waste.

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Healthy, loose soil is the basis for a smart garden or lawn. View the resources below to get started.

Test Your Soil

A soil test is the best way to learn what the pH of your soil is and what fertilizer it needs. Visit for more information about MSU’s soil testing services for gardeners.

Build Your Soils

Smart soil is the key to healthy plants and a successful garden. If you have limited money or time, put your resources into improving your soil.

Prepare Your Soil for Planting

On a day that hasn’t had any rain, pick up a handful of soil and squeeze it. If the soil falls out in pieces, it is dry enough to dig. If it stays in a mud ball, it is too wet, so try again tomorrow.

When preparing a new garden bed, remove all weeds, sod, trash and rocks. Lay clear plastic down on the soil for a few weeks before planting to help kill weeds.

Apply compost, fertilizer and any soil amendments suggested by a soil test before tilling. Turn over or till your soil to a depth of 8-12 inches.

Don’t Compact Your Soil

Do not walk or operate heavy equipment over wet soil. Soils often remain cold, wet and heavy late into spring. Digging in those conditions further compacts the soil and creates a solid mass where new roots cannot grow. Consider gardening in a raised bed if your soil is heavy, compacted or contaminated.

Work Compost into Your Garden Soil Every Year

Adding compost is beneficial for almost all soils. You can create your own compost in your yard or home using food scraps and landscape debris.

Layer 2-3 Inches of Mulch in Your Garden

Natural mulches such as wood chips can prevent weeds, conserve water and moderate soil temperatures.