San Jose scale

San Jose scale

Quadraspidiotus perniciosus (Comstock)

Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Diaspididae


Adult males are minute, winged insects about 1 mm long and golden brown with a reddish tinge. Scales may be either disk-shaped (females) or oval (males), and are composed of concentric rings of gray-brown wax radiating from a tiny white knob (A). Nymphs (crawlers) are bright yellow and resemble spider mites (B).

  • Damage

    Attacks apple, peach, pear, and plum. Scale infestations on the bark can be heavy and contribute to an overall decline in tree vigor, growth and productivity. Tree death is possible. Feeding on the fruit induces local red-to-purple discoloration around the feeding sites (C). Early season fruit infestations may result in small, deformed fruit.

    Management

    Spray a delayed dormant oil when buds are showing green tissue but before pink bud. Insecticide applications may be made to control newly emerged crawlers in early summer. Use pheromone traps to monitor adult males. A degree-day developmental model can predict crawler emergence after petal fall or trap biofix.

    Crops Affected

    • Apples
    • Peaches
    • Pears
    • Plums

Similar Species

  • European fruit scale

    Insect

    The female is immobile and covered with a circular waxy shell that becomes dark gray over time and is elevated at the center. The adult male is brownish red with an elongated abdomen, long antennae and wings.

    Female is covered with a circular waxy shell that becomes dark gray over time and has an elevated ce
  • Forbes scale

    Insect

    Round or elongate gray scale with a raised reddish area in the center, which distinguishes it from the San Jose scale.

    A round or elongated scale with a raised reddish area in the center.
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