Subfamily Heteroderinae

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            Family Hoplolaimidae
                 Subfamily Heteroderinae


Genus Heterodera
Schmidt, 1871
“Females. Cyst stage present. Body globose, lemon shaped, with short neck and terminal cone. Cuticle thick, with superficial lace-like pattern; D-layer absent; subcrystalline layer present or absent. Vulva terminal, nulnal slit of variable length; vulval lips not protruding. Vulva area ambi- or bifenestrate. no anal fenestration. Underbridge generally present. Bullae present or absent. Eggs retained in body; in some cases egg mass also present.
Males. Body twisted. Lateral field with four (rarely three) lines. Spicules > 30 um, slightly curved, directed obliquely, with distal extremity pointed or notched. No cloacal tubus. Tail very short, rounded.
Juveniles 2d stage. Stylet < 30 um. Lateral field with four (rarely three) lines. Oesophageal glands filling body cavity. Tail conical, pointed; hyaline part variable, generally half tail length. Phasmids punctiform.
The genus Heterodera is unique among other nematode genera because of the unusual ability of the female cuticle to transform into a tough, brown, cystlike sac, protecting the eggs which have been formed within the body. (Thorne, 1961)” From Powers and Mullin website

Powers T. and P. Mullin. Plant and Insect Parasitic Nematodes. University of Nebraska Nematology Website.