2018 Upper Peninsula pea and small grain variety trial

Our goal was to evaluate species mixtures and varietal performance of pea, oat and triticale on yield and nutrient content.

February 13, 2019 - Author: ,

Plots
Photo by Monica Jean, MSU Extension.

Michigan State University Extension received funding through Project GREEEN to evaluate small grain varieties with and without peas at the Upper Peninsula Research and Extension Center in Chatham, Michigan. Our objective was to inform farmers on mixtures and variety selection to optimize their yield and feed value. Twenty-two entries donated by seed dealers in the northern Michigan were planted in Chatham on May 8, 2018 (Table 1).

Plot size was 4 by 16 feet and boarders were planted to minimize edge affects. Urea was applied May 8 at 108 pounds per acre. Previous crop was a cover crop mixture of crimson clover and oil seed radish. Growing conditions across the region exhibited higher temperatures and below normal rainfall when compared to a five-year average.

Varieties were harvested when the small grain species reached boot stage, which resulted in several different dates (Table 2). Three quadrat clippings were taken from each treatment. NIR nutrient analysis was done at Dairyland Laboratory. At the time of harvest, plots averaged 15 percent moisture content. No pest damage, lodging or significant weed pressure was observed.

Variety selection is dependent on one’s end goal for the crop. If tonnage is the goal, Everleaf 126 or Everleaf 126/Fergie oat and pea mixture yielded the highest (Table 2). When considering the digestibility and energy content, having low acid detergent fiber (ADF) and a high total digestible nutrients (TDN) is desirable. Acid detergent fiber estimates the amount of plant components that are the least digestible (lignin and cellulose). The Survivor pea mixture had the highest food value due to its high crude protein and digestibility.

Crude protein graph
Figure 1. Crude protein and TDN yield. *Denotes varieties not significantly different than the best performing variety, per parameter.

To further evaluate the nutritive yield of the varieties, we took the concentration of crude protein and TDN and multiplied it by the dry matter (DM) yield (Fig. 1). Partner, a pea and oat mixture, yielded a large amount of crude protein and total digestible nutrients per acre. No single entry was superior in both yield and nutrient content. Considering the cost of the seed will also play an important role when deciding what species and variety to select.

As a demonstration, we selected the top eight entries and ensiled them in mini-silos (Fig. 2) for three months. Table 3 is a summary of the nutrient results for the ensiled oats and oat/pea mixtures.

Mini soils
Figure 2. Mini-silos used to ensile the oats and oat/pea mixtures.

Table 1. Summary of entries received for 2018 pea and small grain variety trial.

Variety

Species

Source

Seeding Rate, lbs/ac

Grain/pea, % of mix

Jerry

Oat

Public

96

-- 

Milkmaker

Triticale/Pea

Cisco

100

50/50

Partner

Oat/Pea

Cisco

100

50/50

Trical 2700

Spring Triticale

Wolf River

100

--

Everleaf 126

Oat

Wolf River

96

--

Tritlage Pro

Triticale/Pea

Byron

100

--

Stockade/Haywire/Elevator

Pea/Oat/Triticale

Cisco

100

--

Survivor peas/ T100 facultative

Peas/Triticale

Cisco

100

50/50 

Laker

Oat

Wolf River

96

 --

Laker/Fergie

Oat/Pea

Wolf River

100

60/40

Laker/Arvika

Oat/Pea

Wolf River

100

60/40

Tritcal 2700/Fergie

Oat/Pea

Wolf River

100

50/50

Tritcal 2700/Arvika

Oat/Pea

Wolf River

100

50/50

Everleaf 126/Fergie

Oat/Pea

Wolf River

100

60/40

Everleaf 126/Arvika

Oat/Pea

Wolf River

100

60/40

Goliath/4010

Oat/Pea

CPS

100

60/40

Ogle/4010

Oat/Pea

CPS

100

60/40

Ogle

Oat

CPS

96

--

Goliath

Oat

CPS

96

--

Forage plus

Oat

Wolf River

96

--

Forage Plus/4010

Oat/Pea

Wolf River

100

--

 

Table 2. Summary of harvest time, yield and nutrient content by variety.

Variety

Harvest date (boot stage)

Yield (DM tons/acre)

Crude Protein, %

ADF1, %

TDN1, %

RFV1

Jerry

6/22

2.38

N/A

Milkmaker

6/29

1.46

  20.5*

 28.5*

  67.4*

148.0

Partner

7/2

2.55

16.0

33.2

66.0

120.6

Trical 2700

7/2

1.76

12.4

31.8

66.3

106.0

Everleaf 126

7/11

  2.94*

8.3

32.8

66.0

105.5

Tritlage Pro

7/2

1.93

13.8

34.1

65.6

107.6

Stockade/Haywire/Elevator

7/2

2.12

17.5

32.2

66.2

126.7

Survivor peas/ T100/ facultative

6/28

1.17

  24.1*

 27.4*

  67.7*

  173.4*

Laker

7/2

2.56

10.0

34.5

65.5

100.2

Laker/Fergie

7/2

2.37

12.3

35.4

65.2

102.2

Laker/Arvika

7/2

2.33

15.3

34.2

65.6

114.0

Tritcal 2700/Fergie

7/2

1.71

12.5

33.0

66.0

109.2

Tritcal 2700/Arvika

7/3

2.26

  21.7*

31.5

66.4

135.5

Everleaf 126/Fergie

7/13

  2.95*

10.4

36.9

64.8

96.8

Everleaf 126/Arvika

7/13

2.67

12.6

36.1

65.0

102.3

Goliath/4010

6/29

1.97

13.7

 29.3*

  67.1*

129.7

Ogle/4010

6/28

2.12

16.5

30.3

66.8

132.4

Ogle

6/28

2.34

10.7

31.5

66.4

114.2

Goliath

6/29

2.26

10.1

 30.0*

  66.9*

118.9

Forage plus

7/2

2.51

10.2

33.5

65.8

108.3

Forage Plus/4010

7/2

2.34

  20.0*

32.8

66.0

134.1

1 Acid Detergent Fiber (ADF), Total Digestible Nutrients (TDN), Relative Food Value (RFV)
* Denotes varieties not significantly different than the best performing variety, per parameter

 

Table 3. Nutrient summary of ensiled oat and pea and oat mixtures for demonstration purposes.

Variety

Moisture %

pH

Crude protein %

Acid detergent fiber %

Ash free neutral detergent fiber %

Total digestible nutrients %

Relative food value

Partner

70.3

4.62

9

37.91

54.82

64.45

100.79

Everleaf 126

73.41

4.52

7.45

41.32

68.22

63.4

77.37

Laker

68.82

4.89

9.38

39.72

61.48

63.89

87.61

Everleaf 126/Fergie

70.72

5.27

8.8

43.39

63.07

62.75

81.16

Everleaf 126/Arvika

72.31

4.62

10.45

38.89

54.38

64.15

100.39

Ogle/4010

63.49

4.51

8.75

42.9

61.38

62.91

84.3

Forage Plus

66.17

4.39

10.24

39.85

52.9

63.85

101.82

Forage Plus/4010

71.59

4.83

11.34

38.06

51.38

64.41

107.48

Special acknowledgement to the staff at the MSU Upper Peninsula Research and Extension Center for their work on this trial, including Christian Kapp and Andy Bahrman. 

For questions related to this research project, please contact Monica Jean, MSU Extension field crops educator, at 906-786-3032 or atkinmon@anr.msu.edu.

Tags: field crops, msu extension, peas, small grains, variety trials


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