ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIODIVERSITY - Evaluation of ecosystem service policies from biophysical and social perspectives: The case of China

December 1, 2023 - <liuji@msu.edu>, Zhiyun Ouyang, <liuji@msu.edu>, Weihua Xu, <lishu@msu.edu>, Unai Pascual



To mitigate unprecedented ecological degradation and to improve human well-being, China has been implementing many large-scale ecosystem service policies. This article highlights three major ones – Nature Reserve System, Natural Forest Conservation Program, and Grain-to-Green Program. Overall, these programs have produced positive biophysical and socioeconomic effects. The implementation of these programs has benefited and will continue to benefit both China and the rest of the world. The experiences and lessons from these programs may also provide insights for many other countries. However, some common issues need to be addressed to improve the effectiveness, efficiency, and sustainability of the programs.


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