Is Your Irrigation System Ready to Apply Chemicals, Chemigation and Fertilization
February 18, 2021
- [Lyndon] Can't get anywhere to share it. Can't move it, I'm looking for the buttons to share the screen. - [Eric] I'll tell you what if you wanna get out of that PowerPoint just right click and end it, and then you'll be able to see your Zoom window a little bit easier and then we'll just go through the same process we did before. Are you seeing the Zoom window yet? - [Lyndon] Yep, and hitting hit screen one. - [Eric] Okay, so go ahead and scroll back up to the beginning. - [Lyndon] There you go, looks good. - [Eric] Okay, share that. And now go ahead and swap screens. - [Eric] All right, there you- - [Lyndon] Ready to go? - [Eric] Yep. - [Lyndon] Thank you, Eric. I gotta thank, we need to thank Eric for all the help in putting this together. He's been in the background all day-to-day while I was at some meeting in Ohio and he was helping the drainage team truck. He's done a tremendous job of helping us try to pull this all together. My name's Lyndon Kelley, I work for Purdue and MSU Extension on irrigation issues. One of the hot topics right now is this idea of chemigation and fertigation and the necessary safety equipment in meeting the label requirements. A lot of that comes from the interest in tar spot never other fungicides that we're considering to use within our irrigated agriculture. A number of the slides that we, and tools and things that we talk about today are available at the different websites that we have there at both Purdue ag engineering and MSU Extension. And then my email's up there, be glad to talk to you about specific issues that you come up with. Before I go too far, a lot of us are looking at this concept of either chemigation or fertigation. The chemigation is a broader topic, in other words, putting a chemical through irrigation systems, fertigation's a subset of that, putting specifically fertilizer through irrigation equipment. It's pretty, in most of the equipment that we see, identical safety measures are required. In some situations in some states we've adopted specific language for chemigation but more importantly, the chemicals have a legal label that EPA has agreed to, and we have to follow that. So a lot of today we're gonna be talking about some label requirements of some of the more common fungicides that are used in corn and some of our vegetables. Whether we're talking about chemigation or fertigation, it's one tool in the package and we wanna you put a sprayer through the field to do apply those things as far as chemical, or do we wanna inject chemicals into the irrigation water or do we wanna run the side dress machine versus putting fertilizer through the irrigation equipment? And a lot each of these methods of application have some advantages and some disadvantages. We start off with fertigation. And most of us might confound fertigation as putting corn, nitrogen on corn. It's been about 10 years ago since we surveyed Michigan producers, but about 15% between 10 and 15% of our producers are putting a nitrogen fertilizer through the pivot for corn. So it's by no means a majority but some are. The biggest advantage that we see in putting nitrogen fertilizer through the irrigation system is this concept of split applications or stair-step applications of the nitrogen. So if you look at the graphic at the front of us right now, if I put all my nitrogen on upfront say 200 pounds of nitrogen, and I put it all on at planting or right at that post to that time period, I've got everything at risk. So, I may even have to put some kind of stabilizer or something to reduce the potential of it leaching, there's things I can spend extra money for. And it may potentially reduce some of the risks of that nitrogen going away before I need it. But the basic concept of it is here that the crop uptake is sort of matches the total volume of the crop being grown. So it's sort of spread and when you think about corn from the time of emergence up through tassel, it's that upward fast curve. If I'm putting all the nitrogen on up front, I have it all at risk for all of the major storms that are gonna be happening through that late May and through June, as far as potentially moving that nitrogen out of the profile. You look at the upper graph here's a four split, so something's going on at planting and then three more split applications at, and, at any one time, I'm meeting the requirement of the crop but I don't have near as much at risk as far as losing, potentially losing that material. So there's a number of different plans that we may look at to be able to do that. Here's four of the most common, about 10 years ago, coming out of the 2012 drought, there was a lot of interest in the fungicide applications and nitrogen applications, through pivots, we surveyed a major group of producers that come together each year at the "Michigan Irrigation Association" and came up with Nitrogen Management Plans that people were commonly using. So if we're gonna raise about a 200 bushel corn crop then we need about 220 pounds of nitrogen, here are four different plans of getting 200 pounds of nitrogen, I'm sorry, 220 pounds of nitrogen on that crop. Each of them are putting some on it starter because we know that we wanna get a good even start to the crop, so we're gonna put some through at the starter and we're gonna probably put on our phosphorus at the same time and any sulfur at the, most commonly at those earlier stages. But from the starter on, it tends to vary. There's a lot of irrigated producers that still wanna go through the field and do a side-dress application with the bulk of the nitrogen. That would be the first one at the top there, 135 pounds at side dress and then 50 pounds at fertigation. Probably one of the more economical, environmentally sound systems that we have, because this allows us to give 50 pounds of extra nitrogen to the irrigated portion of the field without giving it to the dry land corners that exist in most of our fields. So that's probably one of the base levels that we see. From there on up we see more splits that are between 'em, third one down has, sorry, fourth one down at the bottom has no side-dress, everything going through the pivot at knee-high again, at two weeks prior to tassel and then at tassel. All of these are designed to get the majority of the nitrogen on at least the week of tasseling. There is been some recent, more recent work coming out of Purdue that we could probably move those back a couple weeks and still get full uptake at nitrogen. So we may look at spreading those a couple of weeks further as they grow. Either way the concept is to try to do multiple applications. One of the problems that we see as far as getting that done is the size of our injector pumps. The injector pump that pumps the liquid 28% into the irrigation flow. We've typically bought pumps that were in the 40 to 50 gallons per hour range. And, what we were gonna put on 10 gallons of 28% that would give us 31 pounds of nitrogen. Here's the sizes of the pumps that we needed be required to get that application done. If I was gonna do it with just a one inch application, 20 gallons per hour would be a big enough pump. If I was gonna do it with half that at half inch application I gotta double the size of the pump. So I'm up to about the maximum capacity of the pump at 1/2 inch. And if I had wet weather and I only wanted to put about a day's worth of water removal on, just 1/4 of an inch, now, all of a sudden I need an 80 gallon per minute pump so we need bigger, I'm sorry, 80 gallon per hour pump, we need bigger pumps than we commonly have. And I see a number of people gearing up with bigger pumps. If they decide to do this, a lot of times that bigger pump can be shared between eight or 10 different pivots. If the timing allows them to put on a smaller application. So if we're at a time period where we are blessed with ample rainfall there, the last couple of weeks of June and the first couple of weeks of July, we can still get the application on without overfilling the profile. So we don't only deal with field crops and some of you out there maybe working on some tree fruit or vegetable gardens, I think uniformity ends up being a major issue. The big thought there is if my water, if I have five gallons, the last tree on that trickle line is getting five gallons and the first tree on the trickle line is getting 10 gallons, and I put fertilizer through there, one tree is getting twice as much fertilizer as the other. Okay. So it's that standpoint of we need to have a uniform water application to be able to get a uniform fertilizer application there. There again, we're not applying a chemical, very little of the nitrogen is taken up by the leaf or the plant structure itself. Most of it absorbs with the water into the soil or infiltrates into the soil and is pulled up by the root system. So what we need to be careful about things like (muffled speaking) water faster than the soil can take in and having runoff issues where we would concentrate the nitrogen in the lower areas of the field. And there, again, we've gotta have enough holding capacity in the root sown of our plant so that the nitrogen is gonna stay in that upper zone and not be washed through as a leaching factor or a potential contaminant. So, couple of ways of doing that, this chart here, we have one of these for corn and one of these for soybeans available at the website we talked about, the (muffled speaking) if you were with us earlier today we talked about how to calculate using reference ETs that come from a website or a text message from "Enviroweather" or one of the other products MSU has. Or if you just wanna use the temperature chart, if I have an 85 degree day and it's the week of tasseling I'm gonna use 2/10 of an inch of water. So if I've wet for days without any rainfall, I can apply about 8/10 of an inch of water and know that it's gonna stay in the same place that it's at. So I'm just calculating how much removal I've had since the last time we've had water and applying that much, knowing that that held it then that, it should hold it this time. And it will hold my nitrogen in that root zone too. That said, if you're on a good irrigation schedule, you can see these things pretty dramatically as far as when the potentials are to overfill the profile and where to apply them, there are gonna be times like if you look at this one here in late June where we get major rainfalls and we spike up before. As you look at that long-term forecast, and you know you've got three or four days of rain coming, maybe one will drop in behind here and come in after it and get a few days of drying to allow me to have the room, to put the nitrogen with the water and still be able to utilize that, it's there. Even better yet as the new soil moisture probe technologies that are out there, once you've got a year of experience or even a few weeks of experience, you see the rainfalls come and they drive that upper foot up to fairly high levels of moisture, and then they'll use up the moisture, will drain down and become dryer. Okay. So you can start looking at, if I had a one inch rainfall, how far did it drive it up and how far did it drive it down? How many days of drying do I need to get to a point that I could absorb a whole one inch of rainfall or maybe I've gotta go with a bigger, higher concentration of nitrogen and a lower concentration of water to be able to get that done. We definitely don't wanna see it pass beyond that, second foot here, we've got a sensor at second foot, and we don't wanna get moistures so high that we're dropping it below the second foot. So that's a good use of the technologies that we're building as far as soil moisture holding capacities. So when we talk about what you have for instructions out there, starting at the bottom of the page, when we're talking about fertilizer or fertigation, it's totally the grower's responsibility. There is not a specific required label on the fertilizers that says this will work for chemigation purposes. We know that 28% are common liquid nitrogen sources for most of our fertilizer dealers or 27% which is 28% with thiosulfate. Giving you 1% sulfur with 27% nitrogen, have been proven safe and effective in the normal weather schemes and things that we've looked at. Beyond that when we start adding additional materials, you wanna do it at your risk, make sure you know that the products are gonna work there. I got down there and let the neighbors try it first. We joke about that, but I have been around pumps that are totally plated with a fertilizer that here itself to the impellers of the pump because it precipitated out under the high pressures. So you need to be careful about what products we're using beyond those common ones. When we think about chemical application, we're gonna transition into the putting chemicals or chemigation into the system. We do have a legal document. It's that three-sided document that the federal government's put together with the registrar of the company that produced the pesticide. So we have talked about this three sided stool that comes up here and remember you're restricted use pesticide training as the applicator, that's you, the person that's actually bought the product and is gonna use it. The registrant, that's the company that produced the product and came up with the rules that it should be used by. They had to prove that, that product was safe and effective at the instruction levels, if you followed the instructions that were agreed upon between them and the EPA, "Environmental Protection Agency." So that's, that three-legged stool. If a product, a pesticide is gonna be put through an irrigation system it must have a legal chemigation label. It may be a separate supplementary label to a product or often it is a section within a label that says chemigation and gives the information that's required there. Today we're gonna talk a lot about the chemigation labels, the two common fungicides that are used in corn for foliar diseases, Headline AMP and Trivapro. You can get those labels off. Obviously if you buy the product, they're attached to the container. If you wanna look at the labels ahead of time and I really think that's important, before you buy your product to look at the label. I think some people are very surprised at what the labels say as far as the requirements. But, take a look at the websites that we have listed there or there's some chemical websites that list all fungicides and you can go through and look at each of the chemigation labels in that respective. When we look at the directions to go through a sprinkler irrigation system, remember a lot of these fungicides can be used in trickle irrigation for vegetable crops or other uses, lawns and other things. But they're gonna require a clean tank. Remember it needs to be cleaned because the fertilizers that are left in the tank mixed with the pesticide may impede the activity of the actual fungicide that's there. And then there's some warnings in there that we need to use the rates and timings that are in the label, or they're not liable for the failure of the product of that goes there. In the labels in the Headline AMP it that says you can use it through any overhead equipment. And it specifically labels out not to be used in drip or trickle equipment or subsurface drip. So this product doesn't have any effectiveness going through the root system ,it is not as systemic, it's going to be a surface applied product that is gonna stay on the leaf, that's there. So, they specifically outline the types of equipment that could go there. I really liked the guy in the little green box holding the overhead single-nozzle sprayer. I did a lot of that when I was young and I don't think I ever smiled, I think it's good that he has such an attitude, he can smile through that. We need to use the directions that are there. We need to add sufficient water to the mixture and we're gonna talk about that. But a lot of times we use the water volume to come up with the rate that we wanna be able to actually use. In other words these products may be able to use straight out of the product with a micro injector or may be able to be diluted 100 to one, to give us the concentration that would be able to be continuously applied. Remember when we're looking at overhead irrigation, almost all of our irrigation equipment is dependent on a constant flow and a constant concentration to be able to get a uniform application. So we wanna time that so that we get that uniform application from the beginning to the end, we don't wanna end up having too much product so we have to slow the machine down so that it uses more or speed it up because we have too little product left. All is in the calculations that are there. There are, is a little bit of confusion that comes on some of these products. When you look at the Headline AMP label, it says do not exceed 1/2 an inch of application, but that's in the section where they're using Headline AMP as a growth promotant, okay? When we go down to using it as a fungicide then they would like to see that used in a much higher concentration, in other words much less volume of water going out. And there you'll see in the Trivapro label they would like to see between 1/10 of an inch and 1/4 of an inch as long as the system is uniform at those levels little bit of work is going on in that the people that are trying to design systems that are specifically to be used for chemigation. In other words, put a second set of sprinklers on top of your pivot to just apply the chemical too. They're gearing up to be able to put 7/100 of an inch, less than 1/10 of an inch on at a time. So this is actually faster than almost all of our equipment can actually do it, and the only way to get that to happen is to rig up a second set of sprinklers with a lower application that's there. That number was arrived at because that's the amount of water that a corn plant at tassel can hold in the foliage. In other words, in theory, you could spray that 7/100 over the top and the water would not to any great extent make it to the surface of the soil and it would be all effective then. We use 1/10 of an inch of water very commonly that would coat the surface, the very surface of the soil and the leaves of the plant but not push any into the root system. So, can your machine actually do that? Can it move that fast to be able to put these lower concentrations? Well, it all depends on how much water you're putting towards your machine and what it's set at. All of us have a sprinkler chart that came with the application system, the sprinkler package designs and it would put it on, if you look at this Growsmart label at the top of this machine moving at 100%, the fastest it can move would be 17/100 of an inch. So it's right in the range where it would be sort of the, most we would wanna putting this one would, it'd be nice if we could actually speed the machine up and get a little, lower volume of water being applied so I could get closer to a complete use of my product. The machine that has the old label that's scratched down there, if you can see it at 100% it is about 1/2 inch. So that machine is not capable with equipment that's available on it right now to be able to do these applications that are there. Once again, we'd like to stay right around that 1/10 of an inch when we're putting on these fungicides, absolute opposite of when we're putting on nitrogen we'd like to see it between 1/4 and one inch applications as long as we can hold it in the soil profile and make use of that water before the next rain. So the Trivapro label says, do not apply when wind speeds, may drift the product beyond the attended area. So I've taken the liberty here to go, sometimes if we're going outside the field, it's actually because our end guns are on, this is not the thing to do even when we have just clean water and definitely not the thing to do when we have pesticides in the water. So, it is off-target applications, it's a violation of the "Michigan Irrigation GAAMPs," generally accepted management practices and a violation of the Indiana and Michigan's pesticide regulations. You cannot legally apply pesticides beyond the crop. So you need to make sure those things are taken care of ahead of time. You need to use directions in the sprinkler. We wanna make sure that we're getting on a good even coverage. We wanna avoid non-uniform distributions in high points and low points, that comes off the Headline label, the Trivapro label's a little newer and is a little more restrictive, use only with drive systems that provide uniform water applications. So we need to know, make sure the system is uniform. And then the Trivapro they actually say, do not use the end gun. So, there is some problems there and that's a good reason to be reading my label before I purchase the product. If you look at the graphic in the bottom right there, that field is is there. Couple questions there, if I don't irrigate the end guns, if I do not, if I turn the end gun off to make the application, how am I gonna get the fungicide on that areas of the field? If you really know your aerial applicator real well, he may do that application for you. But I think it's really asking to go beyond the measure. Then if I did have it on, am I gonna be able to turn the end gun off when it goes into those areas that are into a different crop? And at the upper left-hand portion of the picture, we're crossing an alfalfa field, I really don't want the Trivapro or the Headline AMP on the alfalfa when I have, so I would have to worry about when I could take a safe cutting of alfalfa. So we'd really need to be paying attention to the pivots and when applications are there, and being able to control that equipment. We wanna make sure that everything is working and all the repairs are done. So you see my picture up here, went too far, picture up here watering the node, we wanna make sure our controls are up there. We don't wanna have the sprayer flanges missing because we have over applications. We don't want the 3/4 inch fountain of youth where the sprinklers missing because we get about a 20 X over application in those situations. We don't wanna have sprinkler, major leaks in the piping system coming to the pivot. And, when we have cornering arms and things we want the full control of those systems. You notice this cornering arms actually re-watering the same area and the end gun in that same area. So we'd get way more water and pesticide in those areas. So those are all reasons not to use that machine. We said we wanted to be uniform, best way to know that we're uniform to do a Can Test, I know those are very unpopular. Unfortunately, it's probably not gonna get better and more and more of these labels are requiring proof of uniformity. If you wanna lay a claim that you didn't get good coverage of the system. If you have a piston like this that actually has an area that got, had no water in the can right here at 220 feet, we're also gonna get no pesticide in that ring, 220 feet out. And if this system wasn't corrected before the pesticide was applied, we're gonna have a drastic under application right here at the seventh tower followed by an over application by the end gun, if we were using the end gun. That is all recorded at one inch applications, that's the Can Testing and there's at the website listed there. You can find more information about doing can testing and those there. Few years ago, Eric and I worked on a project. We looked at drones and their ability to find mistakes in irrigation applications with drones that's available on the web at Eric's site. We also collected data from the pivot doing a one inch application and 15/100 which was the fastest this machine would go. And if you notice our CCU is "Christian's Coefficients of Uniformity," we lost about three units of uniformity when we sped the machine up. And if you look at it, the major culprit that goofed us up was the end gun and the end gun transition area. (indistinct chatter) So it never gets better when you move faster, there's less time for the machine to even out the application. So, let's say, well, what is the minimum performance our machine should have? Well, it'd be really nice to have the Can Test over 85% and if you had one at 85% you'll also have the places you need to repair just like we did on the last ones. We're gonna fix that issue at 230 feet and we're gonna fix the end gun. So that would be the best. If we don't have that, we assume our sprinkler packages are correct if all the right sprinklers are in the wrong, right locations so we could go back through the sprinkler chart, make sure everything's in the right location and make sure that our pressure is at 10%, within 10% of what's suggested. So if it's supposed to have 50 pounds of pressure at the pivot point and it's between 45 and 55, we're probably a good point. If you go to the last sprinkler, there'll be a reading that it should have there. If it's still supposed to have 12 pounds of pressure at the last sprinkler, it should be within 10% of that 12 pounds at the last sprinkler. We're gonna talk about backflow protection. You absolutely have to have that a legal requirement, no major leaks, no major runoff issues. That's where we're pointing faster, and we're accumulating water at the bottom of the hill. And then very few areas where we're getting double applications. And what I mean there is where two pivots are covering the same area. We need to be thinking about minimizing those. Both of these products in Headline AMP is we got the word each here requires some kind of agitation to be applied in the machine, or in the tank that's there. Most of us using chemical fungicides are gonna use a system that's designed specifically for that and they're gonna have an agitation system in 'em. If you're using a bulk tank and you're gonna use chemigation, you're gonna wanna add a controllable mixing unit. If it goes too fast, in some cases it's actually gonna produce a foam and you'll be in more space than you were before. We talked about backflow protection required, almost all the package labels talk about two pieces of backflow protection. The one that is generally used is to protect the groundwater or the river, lake or stream surface water source. And that is called a chemigation valve. These are standardized valves, clear back in the '60s, California, Minnesota led the way in putting together a standardized system for evaluating those valves. They also had an injection port valve. This keeps you from making fertilizer, by that I mean, if the injection pump turns off because the fertilizer tank ran empty, this keeps it from backflowing the irrigation water back to the tank and refilling your tank. So it's an important component there. Those two valves together, this is an air relief system, little ball up here floats to the top and closes the hole when there's pressure, when the pump turns off, the ball drops and lets air go in and there's a five pound vacuum here when there's no pressure, it drains out this small cavity here. There's a flapper valve, just like a backflow valve would have that shuts. When you start up the system, you can inspect, there's an inspection port in here. You can have your wife put her hand in there because my hands too big and sometimes there's snakes caught right in that ball valve that creeps you out. And you can also make sure that there's no liquid coming out of this while it's running. That helps us know that this valve is shut. This looks like a standard backflow valve that we put on systems to keep from losing vacuum pressure on our intake side, or from spinning equipment backwards down the well. But, the backflow valves are missing the air relief systems that's required for chemigation valves. So that's, we see that in almost all labels as the requirement for where we're at for both fertilizers and pesticides. The one deviation from that is if you are using water from a public water supply, you need to be thinking about having a, what is called a reduce-pressure zone valve, an RPZ valve. And this is a requirement of a lot of municipalities and within the state, well codes of almost all the states that if you're sharing a water supply that is also used for human consumption, we need to either have an RPZ valve or we need to be using a separate supply tank that's filled with a line that has an air gap, usually a six inch air gap. So that's currently, go ahead. - [Eric] Just slightly you, we got just a few minutes left. - [Lyndon] I will speed it up. So that's commonly used in greenhouses in small vegetable production. The RPZ valve would be what we think about if we are gonna hook on to, say the school or the church, and watering capacity to a community garden or something. Remember that we gotta have that backflow valve at every point that we source water into that manifold or into that pressurized system, leaving one of these open can allow you to put pesticides in the pond and kill grandpa's fish. I've been that called before but if every time you build a system in to supply water, if you put adequate protection on it, you'll help yourself out. Positive displacement pump, these pumps can be electrical or manual, here is one running off of the jackshaft, when the pump shuts down, it will shut down. Positive displacement pump makes it put out the same volume no matter whether the supply tank is full or if it's empty, it's gonna put out the same continuous volume. And it has a lot of control as far as application. All of the products that we looked at for this presentation required a solenoid valve between the supply tank and the safety shut-off systems and the pump, okay? So we're gonna talk about two different things, interlocking, that's the concept that the pesticide injection pump will shut down when the water pump does, so they're locked together and they're all locked to the pivot. So if any one of the three components goes down, it shuts everything off. So interlocking's both a GAAMPs requirement and on most of these pesticides. And then there's a number of products that are requiring a solenoid valve being connected into the system. What this does is it keeps the pressure from the supply tank feeding through the system. So if we have any leaks, we're not leaking onto the ground. Many of the self-contained units already have these built in or have another, what they believe is another system that avoids that need for that type of valve. There's a nice set of directions up there since I'm running out of time, that talks about doing the incorporation. But the important thing to remember here is when we're doing chemigation, we're often just in the the concentration or diluting with enough water to make the process go through. If you have any questions, I'd be glad to work through it. Most of the chemical labels also have a helpline to help you go through it. But if you're using some type of device for helping us look at calibration, like a calibration tube this becomes a very quick and fast process that's there. And then, two more slides and I've done Eric. This is not the job to do where you set it up and come back three days later, you ought to be thinking about measuring and looking out for things, monitoring for problems that are there, making stops about every four hours or so to make sure we're going through the amount of product that we're thinking and make sure we don't have any major leaks. And then last slide that we have, Eric, is this discussion of flushing the system, we wanna clean the system out. Most of 'em say you need to apply about twice as much water as it takes to hold in the system. You can do a quick calculation but our standard 6 1/2 or 6 5/8 inch pipes that are 13 pivot spade, 1300 long are gonna take about 12 minutes to do a double flush, in other words, to fill 'em twice. It's a little longer than you would think but what we don't want, we want that chemical to be out there on the field, remember to keep moving forward so that we're traveling, we're not just washing off the pesticide we just put on. There's a few other slides in this presentation but they were presented earlier today, at one o'clock, we talked about managing irrigation to lessen diseases. The major theme there was, as we get towards the end of the year, when we have more foliar diseases, watch your irrigation applications, make sure you really need to do the irrigation application. And then second, keep that irrigation application large enough so we don't have to come back too many times. And I'd be glad to talk to people individually. I'm gonna put the next slide up just so you have my information there in case you wanna give me a call. Eric, are there any questions? - [Eric] Yeah. So, if anyone has any questions for Lyndon about any of the topics that he's been talking about this afternoon, please go ahead and type those into the Q&A box. I'm seeing a few things in the Q&A, Lyndon but they're not really related to what you've been talking about, so, I'm not gonna bring 'em up right here. - [Lyndon] Okay. - [Eric] So if anyone has any questions, go ahead and put those in. But while we're waiting for that, we'll go ahead and post our Now Famous Survey link into the chat box. So for those of you, this could be your first time joining us today. We'd ask that you'd fill out a quick little survey giving us some feedback on this week in general, and then about this session in particular. And then at the end of that survey, for those of you who are interested in CCA or RUP credits, there'll be an opportunity to put your information there. We'll get that taken care of. And sometime, I don't know when, but sometime in the next month we'll be having somebody crosscheck all of our attendee logs and looking through all of the requests for RUP credits in particular, and someone will be contacting you with all of those seminar codes once we've been able to verify attendance and all of these. Lyndon, I'm still not seeing anything in the Q&A that's related to your talk here, so... - [Lyndon] Eric, what happens if I can't get the survey to come up? I want my RUP points. What am I gonna do? - [Eric] Well, Lyndon you're not alone in that. There's been a few folks who have either not been able to click on the hot link in the chat box or for some reason it's just not working. Contact one of us, Lyndon's email is on the screen right there or you can contact Bruce MacKellar, he's the one who put in for the RUP credits or you can contact me, just let us know what you're experiencing, we still have more day of sessions tomorrow, hopefully we can kinda fix all problems by then. But a bare minimum is we'll be able to do some things in the background via email and submit that for you. So if nothing else works, contact one of us and we'll get your information added to that request list. I do have one person whose asking if they could get a copy of the slides. And that's probably a good question for the entire week. We're not planning on making the slide set available in general as far as I know on Bruce you can correct me if I'm wrong, but Lyndon, are you open to sharing some of these or are we just gonna rely on the video recordings so folks need to access them again? - [Lyndon] Have 'em send me an email and describe to me a little bit, how you intend to use the slides. And my major concern there is if you're working for a major chemical company and you're getting paid to do the presentation, you can do your own presentation. (laughs) But everybody else, I'd be glad to help you if there's something in there you wanna see, or if there's something you wanna discuss, I'd be glad to discuss, send me an email. - [Eric] So, again, Lyndon's contact information is on the screen we can take a picture of that quick if we need. (indistinct chatter) I'm going to go ahead and close out the session in about 30 seconds. So, go ahead and copy that link, that survey link if you haven't had the chance to do that already. And Lyndon, I'm still not seeing any other questions in the Q&A so, thank you very much for sharing. I think with that we'll close out the track for the day. Thank you everyone for joining us. Hope you found some useful information about either addressing too much or too little water in your operation, and we've been able to address all of your questions. And again, if you can't think of any other way, if you need to contact someone, you can send me an email and I can forward it on to the different speakers if you weren't able to get their contact information. So, okay. I'll wait about 10 seconds and then I'll close out the session, have a good afternoon, everyone.