Some potential points to spur discussion:

  • Local ISP counts are less significant in the models than expected but seemed to have the greatest positive influence on employer automobile dealers and non-employer bookstores, both of which may rely heavily on online shopping or advertising.
  • Metro counties are actually less likely to have bookstore establishments.
  • Social capital index has the most ubiquitous positive effect on retail establishment counts.
  • While significant sales tax rate coefficients display mixed signs, higher property tax rates always lead to a lower probability of zero establishments, supporting previous findings in the literature that higher public amenities lead to higher retail demand.

For the detailed journal article from which this map derives, see Van Sandt, Anders, Craig Wesley Carpenter, Scott Loveridge, Rebekka Dudensing, and Linda Niehm. 2021. “Revealing U.S. Retail Industries’ Functional Hierarchy Through Demand Thresholds.” Under review.

This project was supported by the Agricultural and Food Research Initiative Competitive Program of the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture (NIFA), award number 2017-67023-26242.


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