Some potential points to spur discussion:
- Employer clothing store retailers are most affected by retail leakages, on average losing nearly four and a half establishments for every 10% increase in residents who work out of county.
- It appears that retail leakages either weaken employer establishments to a greater degree, or perhaps that retail leakages prevent non-employer establishments from ever growing into employer businesses due to limited demand for local retail.
- Clothing stores are more likely to have zero establishments in a metro county. This finding is somewhat consistent with research that finds big box retailers prefer areas with lower population density.
- Social capital index has the most ubiquitous positive effect on retail establishment counts.
- While significant sales tax rate coefficients display mixed signs, higher property tax rates always lead to a lower probability of zero establishments, supporting previous findings in the literature that higher public amenities lead to higher retail demand.
For the detailed journal article from which this map derives, see Van Sandt, Anders, Craig Wesley Carpenter, Scott Loveridge, Rebekka Dudensing, and Linda Niehm. 2021. “Revealing U.S. Retail Industries’ Functional Hierarchy Through Demand Thresholds.” Under review.
This project was supported by the Agricultural and Food Research Initiative Competitive Program of the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture (NIFA), award number 2017-67023-26242.