What's Wrong with my Vegetables

February 28, 2024

More Info

This presentation will cover abiotic and biotic abnormalities in vegetables. It is easy to see if a plant is not looking good, but it is not easy to identify right away what the causal agent of this abnormality is. The goal of this presentation is to give specific examples of vegetable abnormalities that will help identify what is wrong with your vegetable.

The 2024 MI Ag Ideas to Grow With conference was held virtually, February 19-March 1, 2024. This two-week program encompasses many aspects of the agricultural industry and offers a full array of educational sessions for farmers and homeowners interested in food production and other agricultural endeavors. While there is no cost to participate, attendees must register to receive the necessary zoom links. Registrants can attend as many sessions as they would like and are also able to jump around between tracks. RUP and CCA credits will be offered for several of the sessions. More information can be found at:  https://www.canr.msu.edu/miagideas/

Video Transcript

My name is Salta Mambetova, I'm the vegetable extension educator on the east side of the state. Today I guess we'll learn what could be wrong, right, with the vegetable and when it's wrong, what it is and how we identify and what can we do. So there are many potential reasons. Could be, as you are looking at this tomato leaf in the picture in front of you. Everyone could say especially, you know, I have a pathology background. I would think, oh, it's probably a disease issue. And Ben Werling, who's a moderator today, He's an entomologist. He could think, oh, this is insect issue, and then there could be just an abiotic or disorder we need to understand. You are diagnosed before to understand what is actually happening to the plant, to the vegetable. That's what I'm going to talk about today. Mainly we'll be focusing on abiotic and biotic parts. I'll tell you a little bit more about each factors. Abiotic, it's basically when something happened to a vegetable that it's because of some environmental conditions. Usually it's always non infectious versus biotic. It's caused by an organism or a pathogen, we say, and it's infectious, it will infect others. Once you have the pathogen in the field or in the garden, if the spores have right conditions, they will sporulate and multiply and keep going on and on again. Versus abiotic, it's something happened due to some conditions. Examples are here and also in the next slide, I will show you a picture and talk about more about abiotic. Again, as you can see in the pictures, there are cauliflowers laying on the ground Once you walk into the field, see something like that. You need to think about what happened here. In this particular picture, it was abiotic because it was due to the lack of basically water. There was soil moisture. Soil structures, Can you make these unhappy plants unhappy vegetables and soil nutrients? Yesterday, Ben Phillips, our other vegetable educator on the west side of the state, he talked a lot about it and he gave a great presentation about soil ph and nutrient deficiency and indefficiency. What happens if I will touch a little bit on that too, but basically, again, we need to keep in mind abiotic usually happens due to the environment, the soil structures, the soil ph, maybe the soil moisture maybe. And then also chemical injuries can happen. And I'll tell about that in a minute. I don't know why my mouse is not moving. This is an example of herbicide injuries. Here's tomato plants as you can see. Not happy you can see again, the plants are, the plant development is not healthy. Here, it's got a stress, we don't know what's happening, but in this particular again, example, it was the herbicide injury. The mulch that you see in the picture has been treated with 24d herbicides. And that is one of those herbicides that tomatoes are usually not happy and they're kind of susceptible to that. So that's what happened. So this would be an abiotic factor. And then as I said, the chemicals can injury, the pesticide application can cause injury when applied. Depending again, when applied, if there is a rate is wrong, right? If you use incorrect rate or if you use a crop or vegetable that is not listed in your label, there could be you use the spray tan herbicide, but then you decide to go and use the. Another pesticide and then there's some leftovers in that tank. If you accidentally get mixed, that could also lead to some injury. Possibly the ten mixes are allowed. Usually you can include some herbicides and fungicides together, but you have to make sure you do a little like a small test run with that ten mixes because it's always good to test in a smaller area versus a bigger plot. Then you could at the end, find out that it has actually phytotoxical injury. And whether it's also one of the big factors because you know when you're spraying you have to make sure there's no wind and the drift can happen, carry over can happen. We just if the storm, like last night, happened during the growing season, you don't want to spray before the storm because then the older pesticide would wash away and move around with pesticide application. And again, this is just a summary that I'm not going to talk a lot about it, but one of the abiotic injuries that can happen in vegetables that could be pesticide application that's being applied again in either incorrect rate or in a different crop for other reasons that I just mentioned. Always read a label, make sure you are following the instructions. Again, I have a couple slides on nutrients. But again, as I said, Ben Phillips yesterday, think he did a great job explaining nutrients and ph and what plants need and how they uptake and then what happens if they don't have. I have a couple of slides also showing what happens if there is a nutrient deficiency. But basically we, again, for a plant to develop all it requires that sufficient nutrients from the soil for the plant development. And again, if something wrong with your vegetable, you need to understand, is there nutrient deficiency happening? You know, is there enough nutrient in the soil? Did you apply enough? Did I overapply? And then of course, you have to keep in mind the environmental conditions like soil ph. Again, soil temperature and moisture, are they adequate? Do you have that right soil ph for nutrients to be taken by the plant? Again, I'm not going to go into much details, but these are factors that you need to keep in mind if you do see unhappy, sick looking plants. These are a couple examples and pictures with the nutrient deficiency symptoms. Generally, with nutrient deficiency symptoms, there's a color changes in any plants. Usually the chlorosis is very common symptom. You can see here versus the top chlorosis picture the plant leaf versus yellowing and then the bronzing purpling is another nutrient deficiency symptom. This one. Do you guys, I want to get rid of this one. This one necrosis. Another localized symptom which again it crosses could be very tricky. When we talk about biotic, I'll cover that in a biotic part. Here's another example. Calcium deficiency in cabbage and calcium deficiency in tomato fruit, the blossom and rod very common, I guess, symptom that you see in tomatoes. In cabbage the calcium deficiency is showing the burning edges and it could be in other crops as well. This is magnesium deficiency. Snap beans and corn and sweet corn and beat. Then I have in the lower a picture of beans down here also you can see there's two rows that are, have chlorosis and then there's some parts here. And there also chlorosis symptoms or yellowing symptoms with abiotic, again balls with abiotic biotic. We need to kind of observe what's happening around there. Like what's happening in your field or in your garden. You need to see if you like vegetables. If you have different vegetables planted like tomatoes and cucumber and you know, other cabbage and others, you kind of want to watch what is happening to other crops. Is it only one vegetables are looking, you know, different than others or like sick or not. And then from there you kind of do your investigation, right? So again, abiadict, I don't know if I have one more picture. Okay, so this is moral in general, but in abiotic, again, when you have abiotic symptoms, just make sure you look at these symptoms that I just shared with you. And as I said, again, color changing is very common. And there are also some specific nutrient deficiency symptoms specifically for different nutrients. For example, your primary nutrients can show in the older leaves, whereas your secondary or micronutrients can show the different color changes in younger leaves. Then there's a localized symptoms, you can see necrosis, you can see more stunting and leaf chlorosis. Again, these are you can look at up this one if you want. You can take a picture of this if you want nutrient deficiency or if you think it's nutrient deficiency. Again, you can think back if you did a soil test, usually soil tests you do in the fall or early in the spring if you have that result. And then if you see if you think some nutrient deficiency symptoms happening in your field or garden, you can always go back and look at your soil results and analyze. And again, investigate, try to see what did you apply, what you didn't apply, what you overapply maybe. And if you didn't do a soil test, maybe it would be a good idea to test your soil and see what kind of nutrient you have in your soil has been, you know, depleted. Or you have more nutrients of specific crops because of growing different crops. And again, Ben Phillips yesterday covered really good, and he talked about how different vegetables can uptake different nutrients right during the season. If you again think that it's something wrong, you don't know what's happening. You think it's nutrient deficiency, but you don't know which one or you have guesses, but you want to test it. You can always do a leaf tissue test. You can sample it. And there are different laboratories around here that you can test or you can send and test it. I don't know if T MS Diagnostic Lab does. I believe they do or may not. I'll talk about MU diagnostic lab in a minute with biotic samples, but I'm not sure about biotics, but we can check and as I said, again, review your fertility program, your rates and applications, Like what you've done for this season, what you've done for like your history. Look at what you've done last year, this year, if you have soil tests, you can look at that. And that should you kind of give you some answers there. Okay, I have a quick quiz again. I'm talking about today, abiotic factors that they covered due to environmental condition, soil ph, soil moisture, and then structures and so forth. And then biotic ones, which I will be covering after this. But for this quiz now you learn what is biotic. I want you to pick which one of these pictures do you think is abiotic symptom? Is it A or B? And please use chat and then just type there. Which one do you think is abiotic? Is it an A? One of them is abiotic, one of them is biotic. Since you learn about abiotic, I want to test your knowledge or I want to do this quiz and see which one do you think is abiotic. Okay. I'm going to probably go just to, I don't know why I don't see, but A. B. Okay. There's different. B is A. Okay? We have a mixture of, mixture of answers, right? 50% 50, 50. Let's see what it is. Here you go a bit. The magnum deficiency was this one. The B was the abiotic one. A good job. Who chose that then? A was the leaf mold, this is a fungus. What I did in the picture, basically, when you turn over that picture and underneath, you will see more symptoms, which I will talk about in a minute. Then if you put that leaf or sample under the microscope, you will see the beautiful pathogen spores. I have another one. These pictures are being taken by me last fall or I guess one of them. What's wrong here Again, you tell me which one you think is abiotic. Is it A or is it A? B. And I'm going to go back to the chat and look at it. A good job. You guys are very good. Yes. A is the abiotic because it's the heat stress and the edges burned because of the heat. B was the soft disease in packed bacteria species. Very good. I have last one. Okay. From here I'm going to do Nope, I move that. I don't know. My computer is not speaking. Sorry. But this one was Okay. Let me go back. Nope, it's not going back? Nope. Okay. Wait a minute, I need to go back. Sorry, guys. I don't know why it's not. Okay. So anyway, I think I showed my answer. But this one is tricky though because it's really, you know, I mean, if you're in the field again, I will tell you a little bit more and once we cover biotic part. But with symptoms it can be tricky, especially if it's not really that, you know, standard or classic symptom of particular, either biotic or abiotic issues. Sometimes because of the environmental conditions or the host, the symptoms are not ideal. Sometimes the pathogen or disease can give you a very classical symptom, but sometimes they are not and it's really hard. But again, one of them was bacterial pathogen and bacterial spec and you can see these little tiny spots and then this one was again a nutrient deficiency where it's more yellowing. There's some different, this new crosses but they are not because of a pathogen. Okay. I will not do a move back. I'm going to just keep, move on. Now we're going to cover the biotic part. Okay. Abiotic was the first part. Now covering the biotic part. As I said, biotics are usually caused by some organisms usually are. The bad organisms are the ones that we in fact the plant is. The bacteria, viruses, fungi and fung like or water mold. I'm not going to talk about viruses today, but I think I have examples of these three in the coming up slides. Before I'll, we go in and look at different symptoms and signs of biotic disease or biotic factor. I want to talk about the disease triangle. For disease to actually to happen, you need three things. You need a susceptible host, you need a pathogen, and you need the environment. When there's three factors meet in the middle, then you'll have that disease. And it says here, amount of disease, amount of disease. What I mean here is basically these three factors play a huge role. How much disease can happen in the field. For example, you have a susceptible host and you have a pathogen, but then you don't have that right environment because different pathogen requires different environmental conditions. Most of the disease are like wet and humid conditions, but then temperature can vary. Some pathogens can live in a little bit hotter environment and some are a little bit, you know, kind of mild temperature. It depends. But again, if the environment for that particular pathogen is favorable, right, then the amount of disease would just remain. Because that basically means it will multiply, keep multiplying and you have holes there, susceptible has keep infecting the one plant in one field. And it keeps growing and growing. When you don't have the environment that means the passage and is not going to live in there. Or maybe it is there, but it just doesn't have that ability to reproduce and keep reproducing and keep spreading. I will talk about dispersal, how they disperse in a little bit, but again, these three factors, when we talk about management part, this is very good to keep in mind the disease triangle because if you try to. You know, get rid of at least one part of this disease triangle. That means you're eliminating that disease in your field. And again, it's hard, special environment. Like last year in the east side of the state, there was a lot of rain, rain, rain, rainy days, and we've got lots of rain. And it was humid and it was moist. So it was ideal conditions for pathogens to drive in. And growers did see an increase of disease pressure, but then when there's dry summer and there's not a lot of rain, then there's not a lot of disease. That's how sometimes I hear like, oh, this year we didn't have any disease. Like there was no real, the variety was really good but it could be. Right? But then also we need to keep in mind that if the environment is not there pathogen, as I said, it could be still there, but it's just the environment is not there for it to thrive in. Okay. The next one I want to talk about a little bit about symptom versus sin symptoms is basically the external, the first picture is the internal, it's alteration of plant as a result of that pathogen, right? Of that organism. Usually again, new crosses, we saw yellow wing, this picture right here. This is a symptom versus a sin is usually a pathogen part or a product that you see it. When I see see it, sometimes it's hard because here in example, this is a sin. And there are little spores under this leave. And you cannot really see them unless you will put them under the microscope and while under the microscope the spores are there. This we still call sin because we can see that pathogen product basically another kind of term. I want to introduce that not a term but pathogen name versus disease name because this is very common and I always hear this like some people have a pathogen name, but then they think the disease name is different or vice versa. Pathogen name is basically the organism that calls that disease, right? That's a pathogen, but then disease name is usually a common name. Or only name, or people have called that for years and that's the common name. It's tricky because, okay, here's the example down mild, it's very common disease name and a lot of people you know that, oh, I got down mild. But then if you look here in my picture a, this is down meld and cucurbits, it's caused by pseudo pernospercubenssan, which is one organism versus here see the domilduan onion and downmlduon basil. These are the same organisms but different species. But then there are another example where you can have disease name is the same but the passagen name or the causal agent for that disease, it's very different. For example, black black lag of cabbage caused by a fungus which is, have similar symptoms versus black lacking potatoes is caused by bacteria. Then you have two different even organisms. Here you have same organisms but different species. There you have different organisms, bacteria versus Fung's. Just keep that in mind too. Sometimes you diseases could have similar disease names, but again the pathogen could be different. Then when it comes to, again to management, you need to think the pathogen you have in order to manage that disease. A challenge. At least I think the similarity in symptoms in the field, again, depending on those factors that they shared in the disease triangle. The symptoms can also vary. As I said, sometimes the pathogen can create that perfect ideal classical symptom. And when there is not a conducive environmental conditions, not a favorable environmental conditions, then the symptoms could vary a little bit. And it doesn't look like, as you've seen in the picture on your textbook or on your bulletin. And you will go there and this does in the picture. But it could be the same disease or same pathogen. Similarity is very common here in the picture you see it. It's Same kind of crosses and the patio and it's, you know, the kind of same area. When you, especially in the field, if you're walking, you think it could be the same, but it's different. So again, it's the fungi. Fungi like organisms have bigger spores and it's really easy. If you put it under the microscope, you see these big spores here. This is blade plight in fast and spores, this is the gray moldcipesder the microscope, it's easy to detect again, fungi bacteria. Bacteria are hard because bacteria have very tiny spores. You can, but it's harder. These are the symptoms of, I don't know if you guys see the same screen as I am trying to move this symptom. So it looks good. It looks good. Okay, thank Ben. Thanks. So there is symptoms and signs of late bit, right? To even this fruit and tomato would be symptom here, but the sine would be right here. When you see this again, the white Fz of this pathogen would be your sin of the gray mold. Similarly here you see a lot of signs, as I said, alteration of the plant tissue. Then you see here again, little fuzzy grows here, This grows here. These are the signs. Again, if you take a sample of it, put it under the microscope, you will see those beautiful spot, I call them beautiful. I think they do look beautiful. Diagnostic part, again, we covered the abiotic biotic part and how can you tell a part? Especially you were saying sometimes it's hard to tell even within abiotic and within biotic parts which ones are what is what, Right? Again, it comes with experience. I know a lot of you have experience in many years of being growing vegetables. Some of them you can easily tell. Sometimes, again, depending on weather conditions or maybe the host, your new variety can show a different symptom. So then you may question and say, oh, I'm not sure what is happening, I'm not sure if it's nutrient deficiency or I'm not sure if it's pathogen is causing this and you want to know what's happening. Common problems, again like classic common problems, can be easily diagnosed by experienced grower or agronomist, or one of the MSU extension educators. But then if you want to find out what is really wrong, you really want to find out. You want to say no, I want to get to that spot level or the nutrient deficiency, which one is causing what. Then you can send your samples to diagnostic services. Diagnostic services would do the test for you and I put the diagnostic website here. As you can see, they have great information. You can go to the website, you can look at their services and fees, how much they charge, how you can submit the samples. It's really important when you're submitting to read their instructions because you don't want to send, let's say, rotten fruit or a very damaged plant. Because we'll just Rt until it reached the diagnostic lab and it will be very hard to tell what was the first or primary causal agent for that specific disease. If you do decide you can reach out to extension educators, we would be very happy to help you to sample, help you to walk through the submitting form and how to do it. Okay. In the lab again, they would be doing different ways of they will use different tools to do diagnostics. Sometimes it could be, again, they do cultures. So basically they will put it in grow in the lab culture, in the Petri plates as you see here. And different pathogens have different culture in the plates. Color. And the way how the mycelia and the spores, how they grow. And of course they can take a sample from there, like you see here. And then they can look at under the microscope again to see the type of the spores. But then they want to do more like specific ones or again, if the sample doesn't look like or doesn't have different, I don't know if they can find out doing kind of a low tech methods then these days PCR, I'm sure you've heard, especially after covid, a lot of people get familiar what is PCR is. They would do the PCR molecular test and then they will find out up to, you know, genus and species and so forth. Okay, I just wanted to ask a fun fact, and I guess you can even on mute if you want or type in the chat. So we learned about symptoms and signs. So what do you think? I know it's not. I guess sweet corn could be a vegetable, right? So let's assume this is a sweet corn and what do you guys think? Is it a sign or symptom? And if you know the disease name, the common name of the disease, you can type to please use chat. I want to see if anyone smart, do you think it's sign? Good job. Very good. Oh my gosh. Excellent audience. Everyone knows an excellent audience I have today. The reason why I put fun fact, do you guys know tlagowautifultlagoc about this? Smart. It is yummy. Yes, yes it is. Edible. Perfect, yes. Yeah. If anyone did know this is an edible part of the fungus, and I've heard from a person who has actually, who has tried this has to be eaten at a certain stage. Like I think earlier is better I've heard because once the spores get older, this would just be like very dry and not really tasty. But if you picked in the right time, I guess this could be a good delicacy to eat. Or a snack? Or a food. Yes. Thank you so much for participating in that. We'll keep moving again. Let's recap again with biotic parts. We talked about what caused biotic factors, right? Different microorganisms in fungi and viruses, and fungi like, and bacteria. And I talked about signs and symptoms. You can see the science. You can really see its product of the pathogen, or part or product of the pathogen symptoms is that alteration of the plant tissue and the expression of that pathogen. So then I said, you know, when we talked about disease triangle, how these three parts are important and especially when we think about management part, right? So now we want to talk about pathogen dispersal because that's, I think, important to know also how these pathogens, you know, move around. And a lot of them are, you know, it could be one single dispersal or as they said combinations here, it could be possible. So airborne, airborne is basically moves through air, right? If you have, let's say a tomato field and you got late blight, then light. You know, if it's an airborne again spore, it just moves with air to a different field. Soil borne says it's on its own soil. Born ones are actually, to my opinion, the hardest one because they live in the soil, the pathogen that lives in the soil. It creates another challenge for our grower because then you need to think of how to get rid of that in the soil. Cropptation, longer croprotation and so forth. Water born are usually also challenging ones because you have to irrigate, you need to water the plants or rain comes and the splash dispersal is, you know, easy one, right? Then the pathogen or the spores would go around and then the seed born again. It's kind of explains itself, you know, comes with the seed and even if you had clean soil, you had a good, you know, you started well, but if your seeds being infected then you cannot really do anything, I mean. Depending on, again on that three conditions. There are three factors that I talked about. Even if you have a pathogen wave, if there is no environmental conditions that may survive. But seedbornes are also possible of pathogen dispersal. Now just give you examples of specific pathogen specific disease and how the sport dispersal works. Sletinus, chlrosums, white mold. It's a common disease in many crops. As you see, we have beans here, cauliflower and radishes can be a soil borne airborne and then different crops. This one again, think about if it's soil borne, it leaves in the soil. As I said, when you are trying to grow, let's say a being, then you have to think about in the rotation. You don't want to rotate with any of the other crops that can be susceptible host for this specific disease if you, if you have that in your field. Another quick pointing out here. These all fuzzy grows and these little black parts right here, these are science. And here's also more signs. There's signs and symptoms. Symptoms, You can see more like crosses and yellowing and stuff. But these bigger parts I want to point out, these are signs of that pathogen. Then I want to also talk about a little bit of the disease cycle, want to introduce, you see walk through, I guess the disease cycle. And again, thinking from the, from management point of view and to just understand how the diseases or the pathogens disperse, Let's start here. As I said, it's a soil borne, so it can leave in the soil or plant debris little B parts called scrotum. The scrotum or sclerotia plural. Well, in the spring, early spring, produce these pretty mushrooms. Right Then these mushrooms, each mushrooms will have a structure called apotsium. This is a cross section of that apotsium right here. The spores are inside. And then each opetition have asks, in another structure that holds eight to 12 little spores. And then these ones, they said wind borne airborne, right, will come out from the structure and then in fact the plant. And then the infection occurs throughout this growing stage. Then you'll have more infection. It explains different stages. The pathage or the spore will go into the sclerotia stage, which is over wintering stage of the pathogen. And again, it can go either in the fall, winter, and over winter, or during the growing season it may also germinate and in fact, again throughout the season. Again, when you think about if it's a soil borne, you don't want the plant debris, right? And then when you think about crop rotation, as I said, you need to think an example. If you have this disease, then you want to make sure you don't want to rotate with a crop that it's susceptible to the Scotinros. Okay, another example. Pho phytop, one of the oldest, I would say diseases in Salinasa species. I believe pater actually a little bit history here is a disease that actually started the whole plant pathology direction or what is the word I'm trying to, The patera basically is the a plant or the plant pathogen that started the whole plant pathology study because it was the causal agent for the potato, Irish famine in 18, 48. It was that was a causal agent of the disease issue or disease in that part of the world. Back in 18 48, no one knew what happened. And then Anton by he started and looked into it and the fight after infestans named after him because he was the one who first. Investigated again. When we look at the spot dispersion, it is airborne and seed born with potatoes. It's important, again, if you, to keep the seeds from one year to another year. So make sure you don't because potatoes is one of the challenges with potatoes is that you can. I didn't want to do that. Okay. Do I still have the presentation? Yeah, it looks good. Stay. Thank you. Thanks Ben. Again, if your potato has been infected, then it will carry over to next season. If you plant the same plant tuber. Here's another life cycle of this phytofterinfestins. A little bit complicated, but I want to try to go through a little bit quickly. We can start again in the spring with, let's assume infected potato seed it will sporulate, reduce the sporangia and sporangia sporangium produce spores, called spores. Or here's two ways of infecting. Because one way the spores at 44, 55 farnhits sporangia can produce spores. Or if it's a little bit hotter condition, as I said, some pathogens, depending on the temperature, it can actually directly produce guram tubes and infect. This pathogen has two, it in fact in two different conditions, even in the colder and a little bit warmer conditions, then once it infects during the growing season, the spores really easily can by wind and rain, splash or even mechanical transport. And then in fact the plants on the plant, it will go down, the spores go down. In fact, tubers and tubers can get infected again if you store the tubers and the replant, or sometimes coal piles, you know, around the fields with leftover and especially with temperature that we had this winter, the pathogen over winter in here and the next spring. That's basically what is showing here next cycle, how this spores can produce in the next season. The one quick fact here with the infected seeds, because I've done my Mister's Phds study, was on a late blight disease. And I've done some experimental trials in the greenhouse and in the field. It was interesting to see if I would inoculate the potato tuber and plant them. The tuber would have the inoculum and then it will start growing like normally. Maybe a little bit weaker compared to plants. But it would keep growing and will not show any symptoms until later. And that's why the sports be with the plant and keep spreading to other plants. I'm going to go quickly a little bit because I think time is moving on, but I want to make sure I cover how to manage disease. And I will talk about each part and I have different slides on it. But basically in pathology work we say avoid, exclude, eradicate, and protect avoid. It basically means you try to avoid either the site selection, as I said, let's say in your garden or field, you had a white mold that I just talked about it. And you know, the, you know, white mold spores can overwinter in the soil and can come back next year. What you try to do is site selection, right? You want to try to select a different site. Or again, crop rotation, you want to put the crop that it's not as susceptible. The seeds are important. Like with potatoes, I said purchase versus saved. If you know you didn't have any disease, then you want to save it. But next year, as I said, sometimes tubers may not have that symptom. They can be asymptomatic and sit in the tuber or in the seed and not show the symptoms. But the next season when you plant them with the environmental conditions and the pathogen would try to use certified disease free seeds in different ways and rotate. Exclusion is again, you want to try and start with pathogen. Disease free seeds or transplants, or seedlings with seeds. There are different treatment methods like heat, hot water treatment or chlorine. And different treatments you can use to treat the seeds. And make sure you're treat seeded. And you know that it's free from diseases or you can use certified disease free seeds. Eradication. There are different ways of eradicate. Again, if it's a smaller field or even if it's a larger field. But if, let's say go out and you see symptoms and signs of that pathogen, you can easily physically eradicate that. Pull out that plants out and destroy them. Make sure they do not spread the disease there in the soil. For the soil, you can do different chemical disinfection and fumigation. Crop rotation. Again, it's very important and you want to make sure you rotate the crop and do not put the same crop or a similar susceptible host to the disease that you may have had in the past. And there are some biological ways of controlling and protection, the very common way of protecting spraying pesticides or fungicides. But then there are other ways for cultural practices. You can mulch, you can use different temperature water management system irrigation, as I said, it's important like if you have drip irrigation versus overhead would splash the spores and the spo, dispersion would be higher versus the drip irrigation. There are other biological control are available, there are different studies that show like saprophy, basidiomycetes and pseudomyringeyn, especially in the, for the soil borne pathogens. Then the last one is genetic resistance. If you have option to use tolerant or resistant varieties, I would recommend to use them because you have some kind of genetic resistance to start with. And then if you incorporate cultural practices and maybe biological or maybe chemical like integrated past management, that's the IPM, then it would be ideal or you would have better chances to not have the disease. Right. And then resources, we have really good Midwest Vegetable Production Guide. Basically, it's free online. I put here and I can put it in the chat once I'm done talking the website for it, but this is online. If you want to purchase this one, I will show you how you can purchase this one and the weed control guide for vegetables in a minute. There is another tool that I recently learned, my IPM for vegetables. This is an app, basically you go in, you download it, it's both Android and Apple friendly. And you download it and it will have pictures of different diseases and how to manage them. What kind of fungicides to use or what kind of management control you can use, and so forth. I've seen the demonstration once. I haven't downloaded myself the app yet, but it's just just came out recently. Here's the MSU extension bookstore shop dot dot edu. If you come here, if you put that Midwest Veg guide and search it, it will come up and you can purchase it from here and order to your home online. Same thing with weed management for vegetables. You can find it here and then order it. Lastly, if you want to learn more about vegetables and want to read different articles, our Vegetables Vegetable Team website is right here. Again, if you just think type assume actension vegetable, it will bring up to this page. If you have questions later on you can ask an expert bottom if you're a home gardener or if you are a commercial producer, then you can reach one of our extension educators myself in Saga County. My office in front? No, at the Sagino Valley Research and Extension Center. An whirling, who's a moderator of this talk? He's in Oceana County. Chris Gelberz, he's in Southeast, here in Monroe. And an Phillips who talked yesterday. He's in Iberian County. We are there for you to help if you need any help with any vegetable questions. Ken had a question he said on your slide, Avoidance pathogens. Oh, it's a comment you should include selecting plant varieties that have natural built in disease resistance. Okay. Yes. Thank you. I think that avoidance, that could be. Yes. Sorry, I may have missed it. I put that in a exclusion what is it? The last one in the protection I've included in the protection. But it could be avoidance too. Yes. Because you're trying to avoid the disease and use resistant, naturally resistant varieties. Yes. Dan had a question that I partially address, but I appreciate your input. Stash, should disease vegetables not be added to compost, I'm assuming you're worried that if you put a blighted plant into your compost and you put that compost on the soil, have an issue next year? Sta do you have any? Yeah. I think it's yes and no. I guess probably no is better just eradicate and destroy the plant. You don't want to use that, the plant as being a source for next year? Yeah, I would definitely say no for that. At the end of the season, again, depending on the weather conditions, you compost would probably reach a certain temperature and kill the spores anyway. It depends what kind of composting system you have. You can, again, you can just remove it and be safe and you don't want to think about it. Or if you want to add it, then make sure your compost reaches a certain temperature that would kill the spores of that pathogen. I think that Would you agree An yeah. I as I understand it, we think about it, especially in terms of human pathogens and composted manure. But I'm assuming it's the same for plants. What needs to happen is the compost needs to be well aerated, it needs to get oxygen, and other conditions needs to be ideal so that it reaches a high temperature for long enough to kill all the bad stuff. But I think your point was good. It just depends how, if you don't need to use the compost or if you don't need to add it to the compost, why risk it? That's a good point, right? There was a question about saving. If folks are saving seed, is it doable to hot water? Treat them, or treat them with chlorine? While you were talking Lt, I put a Ohio state fact sheet in there and mentioned that it can be tricky because it's a fine line between killing the pathogen and killing the seed, but it is something that could be attempted. Yes, I agree there. I think standard practices and it really Yes, you have to make sure again that temperature, whatever you're using and how you are measuring, Yes, you can do it, but yeah, there are some risk. Thank you very much, Salta. We had had some positive comments in the chat that folks enjoyed your presentation.