Practical Monitoring Techniques Based on Insect Behavior

February 18, 2021

Video Transcript

- Just to give us a little bit of buffer time, I'll go ahead and get started. First thing I wanna do is thank the sponsors that have supported this interesting change that we've had to do to our winters programming. You can see them listed there below. The reason for this Michigan AG ideas to grow with conference was this virtual format that we've been forced to do this winter. And so what we did was we combined Southwest Hort Days AG Action Day, Farmer's Day, and a couple of other events into one week long conference that covers a whole host of topics. So thank you all for joining. Because it's virtual, it doesn't cost a lot of money but it does cost a little bit for some things like closed captioning and some other things like that. But because we've been able to do this virtually, we've been able to offer up some scholarship opportunities. That's what the sponsors have really been able to help out with. So we're offering some scholarship opportunities for some high school students and college students. So if you know of anyone who's interested in any of these, you can go to the website there to reach out and we'd like to do what we can to support. The other thing to think about, the other thing is some of you are here for some RUP credits or CCA credits to do this. Oh, I don't know why it decided to do that. To do this, you know, you need to participate in the full session. We do have an evaluation link that we put up at the end in the chat. I've also added it as a survey that pops up when the browser closes or when the session closes up. You need to fill that out to get your RUP credits. The other thing to think about is we will be monitoring the attendance and this is done through a little bit different from what you might've had from other conferences. At the end of each session, we're going to close the Zoom session out that allows us to build up an accurate report from Zoom of who attended and we double-check that with those that are requesting our UPC credits. Once we close it up, after a minute or two, we will open it back up and you just log right back in with the same link. So those of you wanting to watch multiple sessions today, you know, you can just re click on that same link you received. One last thing, We have a video for you to watch regarding Farm Stress. It's very short and I'll go ahead and start that now. - Hi, my name is Eric Karbowski and I'm a Behavioral Health Educator with MSU extension that focuses on Farm Stress with your Farm Stress tip. We know that farming is a stressful occupation and taking care of your mental health is just as important as your physical health. When it comes to this, there is no one size that fits all but the eight dimensions of wellness can help provide you with tools that you need to stay energized and find a good life, work work-life balance. Those include the eight dimensions of wellness and those are physical or any form of exercise can relieve stress. Intellectual, activities that engage your mind such as reading journaling or maybe doing a puzzle can be helpful coping tools. Financial or money management, having a plan. What does that look like? And help reduce some of those financial stressors. Environmental. Spending non-work time in nature, green spaces has also been shown to relieve stress spiritual, or connecting yourself with the world around you. And if you're not spiritual, this could also be done through meditation. Social, staying connected with your family and your friends or seeking out opportunities to make friends and maybe participating in... - Well, I guess that video doesn't like to finish up. So, I guess we'll leave it at that. One thing to think about is if you're interested in the Farm Stress information, there is a a track tomorrow on Farm Stress. So I'll stop with that. - Hi, this is Bill Shane. I'm a Fruit Specialist at Michigan State University at the Southwest Center. I would like to mention, if you have questions, if you mouse down to the bottom of the screen, there is a question and answer box there that you can click on or you can put your comments in the chat. We'll be monitoring those but we will save our questions toward the end and would the available time Mike will be answering those. So with that, our first speaker is Mike Reinke and he'll be speaking on practical monitoring techniques based on insect behavior. Mike, take it away. - Okay. Back to sharing my screen again and over there, we should be good to go. So thanks Bill. And, you know, we've got a few more people showing up, which is great. So thanks everyone for joining today in addition to being moderator with Bill I'm also first speaker so I'll jump off here. My name's Mike, I'm the IPM Educator out of SWM Rec in Southwest Michigan, and I do fruits and vegetables. So as mentioned, you know so sorry, there's a number of tools for insect monitoring techniques and strategies but not all options are effective or even possible for the insects you wish to monitor. So this title was a great one to start with but I think I'm gonna tweak it and give us a new title. How about the six 'W's of insect monitoring and how to adjust based on what you're monitoring for. This should cover most aspects of monitoring. I'll bring up some specific tools and strategies that are specific to particular insects. And then at the end of the talk, I'll bring up a few insect pest examples and go through some of the monitoring techniques that are effective and give a little bit of an explanation why if I've got enough time. So what do I mean by the six 'W's? Some of you may may remember from when you or maybe your kids went to school. These six questions kind of cover pretty much every area of a subject. Now, I know 'how' doesn't start with a W but you know, it's got a W in it, and six W sounds way better than five W's and an H. So, I'm gonna go through these six questions. The first three are going to be pretty quick. Last couple are going to take a little more time cause that's where the behavior of the insect really changes how you approach it. So we'll start with what is monitoring? You know, most of you already have a sense of this but we'll put a good definition up here so that we're all on the same page for today. So, monitoring is an observational and or sampling activity used to gain a good understanding of your insect, disease or weed activity in or horticultural status of your crop. So I'm just talking about insects today right now but many of these ideas and strategies can translate into these other areas of farming. So it might be worth remembering when listening to the other presenters. The other thing to remember is we normally think of insect pests that we want to monitor for but there are times it's valuable to keep track of beneficial insects as well especially, but not limited to those low inputs programs. So moving straight up away, we'll go into the next W, you know, why? There's several reasons, it's worth it to spend time monitoring. These, I would argue are the three most important. They can give you a snapshot into what the insects doing right now, where they are, how many there are, how much of a problem they're causing. If you've done something recently, you can use this information to gather, you know, that you're gathering to determine if your activities have changed that insect population so the success of your program. It can also be used to predict what it's going to be looking like in the future. You know, you can then calculate, use this to calculate, you know what the next week or two can be in the case of insects like spotted wing or when thinking about the next generation like grape berry moth, for example. And all of this can result in a reduction of insecticide usage you know, for a couple reasons, one, you're not putting out insecticides when you don't need to. The other is you're putting out insecticides at the exact best time to get the most bang for your buck. This will end up saving you time and money. It also has the benefit of saving unnecessary chemicals from getting out into the environment Moving on to who, this one's quick. Basically anyone that can be considered a decision-maker or advisor when it comes to managing an insect pest in that field should be thinking about monitoring. With good communication, not everyone needs to be collecting the information. But everyone needs to know who's collecting it and be kept up to date with that information. So now we can get into the more complicated, one of the more complicated aspects of insect monitoring and part of that because this is one of the first ones that should change based on what insect you're looking for, that insect behavior and how it modifies it. Lots of different house but they can basically fit into two different categories. The first is to use that, you know gobs and gobs of information collected by uncountable numbers of researchers, grower collaborators, government representatives, CCAs, PCAs I'm probably forgetting somebody, but you get the idea, lots of people. This information can be put together to develop prediction models used to determine when or if an insect or disease is worth looking for. The second is to actually get out into the field and collect for that insect. Many ways to do this, and I'll go into more detail on these in a minute but I want to point out that technically trapping is a form of scouting but because it's so complex and it's so important in trapping systems, or sorry, in monitoring systems for fruit trees that it's worth pulling out and treating as a separate topic. So we'll take a quick look at prediction models. Like I said, these are used, you know, developed over years of research and observations. The goal of these is to predict insect development or the ability to invest a crop. These models use a combination of variables to arrive at these predictions. You know, lots of disease models use a number of variables like humidity, leaf wetness, rainfall, etc. You know, in some insect models might as well but most models for insects just use degree day accumulation or temperature heat unit build up. Now, you know, this is where insect behavior kind of comes into play because not all insects use the same, you know like the same temperature range. Some insects like the fly or mate, when it's, you know, it has to be above 50 degrees. Some can go all the way down to 42. some insects, you know, they really don't like it above 85 degrees and they like to, you know, stay somewhere, dark and humid until it cools off before they do their feeding or mating or whatever. So, you know, they have different rates at which they grow or develop. So these are all things that go into the model to improve our accuracy. Good thing is you don't need to worry about it, a good model has that built in already. The other thing I put here as Educated Guests on the slide. I put that in out there for a reason. Prediction models are a guess, they're really a smart guess, but a model is really good at telling you when something should or should not be an issue. It doesn't tell you what or whether that insect is actually in your field causing damage, it just tells you there's the possibility so you should be aware of it. One thing I do, you know the good thing is here in Michigan, we are lucky enough to have most of these, you know many of these popular models available in a one-stop shop in Enviroweather. Most of you guys know what Enviroweather is I would assume, but you know, it's a website We manage, collects information from a number of weather stations, makes them available. It also converts the data from these weather stations and puts them into these mathematical algorithms so we get to see the outputs. We don't have to worry about, you know, filling out these models, doing any of that, Enviroweather does all that stuff for us which is great. I do want to point out real quick, this picture looks, well, it's going to look a little different compared to what most of you guys know Enviroweather to look like. That's because this is a snapshot of the new Enviroweather station website, that MSU is finalizing. It's designed to be more mobile friendly, you know so you can use it on your phone and tablet without having to do that pinch and zoom idea. It also allows you to build a profile. So you can quickly sort through models and weather stations you use the most. So it should be easier to use simpler. If you want to know more details, Keith Mason is going to be talking about this. You know, he's front with Enviroweather, he's going to be talking tomorrow on the weather track. So moving on to direct scouting, you know, this lets you know what's happening in your fields. It lets you know, what's happening actually right now while you're doing the scouting. So, you know, if you do it regularly, you can also get really good trends of what's happening on in your field. You know, it confirms what you're seeing. You know, if you take samples, you can confirm the identity of what of the issue you're having. And the last thing to think about is scouting really validates on your farm what you've been seeing in those predictive models from places like Enviroweather. So they work hand in hand, quite regularly. Scouting itself can be broken down into two groups, passive and active scouting. You can also call it passive observational scouting. This is, you know, you observe what's happening to your crop or you look for the insects without actually taking anything out of the field taking samples. It's effective when you're looking for severity of damage. It's also good for estimating populations of insects. When they're easy to see like a Japanese beetle population, you know, it's also good when you're looking for several insects or diseases at the same time. Sampling itself is a more active form. It constitutes actually collecting the insects or the plant material. You know, you can work with them in the field or you can take those materials out of the field for looking at later. Sampling's particularly effective when those insects are hard to find or they are extremely active. Traps are common version of, a common form of sampling you know, in fruit systems. There's a number of other materials or tools that are used like sweep nets, beat sheets, soil sampling. Those are more common in other cropping systems like vegetables and fruit crops but there are some times when those are really valuable in fruit crops as well. So moving directly to trapping, just like with scouting in general, trapping has two main forms. There's that passive form and active form. Passive's not that common in AG systems. It's usually because you need to have highly active insects and in high populations. In access terms, we like to keep the populations as low as we can and in a lot of cases, those insects are really kind of sitting on that crop and doing their feeding and that sort of thing. They're really interacting with their crop super intensely. So passive traps are usually not that effective. One exception is, you know, using sticky bands on trunks of trees to catch things like gypsy moth or sticky tape around branches for mites or scales. So the more common form of trapping is active. This is combined some sort of trap with an attractant and these attractants are usually fit into two categories. One is color, sorry, some sort of visual which color fits into or it's scent based. Color based attractants, there are couple of reasons why different colors work. One in, you know, you can look here at some of the most more common color or reasons for color attraction. You know, some are highly attracted to colors that are associated with flowers or fruits of a crop. You can think of tarnished plant bug or flower thrips. Some like apple maggot are attracted to the bright red of developing apple fruit. A lot of insects are attracted to yellow or yellow green, that's because that indicates a stressed plant. Healthy plants are dark green and they have really active defense mechanisms in place. The insects would prefer to go to a portion of the plant or to a plant that has its defense system compromised so they can survive better. Other insects are just sensitive to color spectra. You know, they have a shifted color spectrum compared to we'd compare it to us. So those are blues and yellows and deep greens. The last one I mentioned here is light. Black blacklight traps or full spectrum white light traps are effective for a night flying insects. This is because the light that these traps give off emulates the moon, mimics the moon and moon is what a lot of these insects use to orient in the night. So it confuses them so they fall in the trap Another attractant is shape. You know, you see a lot of these flat panel traps, these square flat panel traps. They're really good because there's a big large reflectance silhouette work better than 3d traps for most people. The common one used are yellow sticky cards. And this is just because, you know, you can think of big billboard is going to be more attractive and catch more eyes for us than a small yard sign, same thing here. You know, that's a big billboard. Another one is spheres. Here in Michigan, We'll use sphere that, like I said with that apple maggot trap, they liked the red color but they also like a spherical shape to mimic that apple. And the last one I mentioned here that we commonly think of when we think of shape is the pyramid trap. These are common, these traps can be used for things like plum curculio or Brown Marmorated Stink Bug. They mimic the silhouette of a tree trunk that is used for, you know, that these crawling insects are attracted to in order to crawl up into that safe habitat or end of that feeding habitat of a tree Moving on to scent based, you know, we've got, you know, I mentioned plant-based here. That's not strictly true but it's basically anything that is produced from another organism not the other members of the same insect. You can think, you know, like Japanese beetle, you know, those traps are baited with a lure. that combines a pheromone with a floral attractant. They're attracted to the floral, these floral scents because of the sugar content of flowers. Rose Chafer, those traps work really well when you combine them with the smell of a rose and these can be produced synthetically. Some lowers mimic ripening fruit, you know, for the same reason, for feeding. Sap beetles, Spotted wing drosophila, those are attracted to fruits for feeding an over position. plum curculio, it's actually attracted to the smell of unripe plums and stone fruit for over position because they they attack unripe fruit in the spring and early summer. Black stem borer, it's attracted to ethanol. Ethanol is released by trees that are under stress. And so the Black stem borer is attracted to young trees that are stressed. The other one is a yeast, vinegar. Those are scents that come off of fermenting fruit. Things like a Spotted wing drosophila like you see in the trap there, in the picture those are common. That's a common attractant. It's also an attractant for some moths like Oriental fruit moth. The other sense that's commonly used in trapping systems and monitoring systems is pheromone. Pheromone's the most desirable if you have the opportunity. They're highly specific, they reliably bring the insect all the way into the trap and they can last for a really long time in small doses. So, and there are certain groups that use pheromones. So we can't use it for all insects and different insects use them for different reasons. Sexual attraction is probably the most common especially among moths like the the clear wing moth you see there. Others use it to find, you know, to send out the signal that they found a good food source or a habitat. That's what we would call recruitment. Certain things like a Brown marmorated stink bug is one of those. The last one I mentioned here is alarm that is found in AG systems for things like ants and aphids but it's not really used for monitoring purposes. So it's mainly a sexual attraction and recruitment. So that's the complex how, you know, so next we can get into the next question. It's when? This one's short and sweet actually. Basically you should monitor when the past and the crop stage sensitive to damage collide in space and time. You know, they're happening at the same time. This timing is usually determined using three separate things. One, is the prediction models that I just mentioned before that you'd find in Enviroweather. The other one is looking at your historical records when you have monitored in the past. Looking at those results and saying, okay, this is when I found him on my field in the past so this is when I should be paying attention. The other one is just looking at the crop and when it's susceptible, you know, sometimes it may not be that important for that particular pest at that particular time just purely because that crop is not susceptible yet so focus your efforts on other things. You know, moving on, you know, this where? This one's a lot more complex. So, you know, you should know where your insect, where to go do your monitoring so you can focus your efforts and get the most bang for your buck. So where is it in the field? Where's the insect you're looking for? How did it get there? And how's it distributed? So we'll go over each of these separately, where are the insects? You know, do they rely on other woody perennials, or other plants for their life cycle? If so, they'll move in, back in and out of your crop depending on the time of year, you know, and so that's when you'd be thinking field edge. Some pests are not as mobile, or they use the crop for their entire life cycle. Once they get established, they can be found throughout the block year on year. Another thing to think about is where on the crop you're going to find the insect? scale and cilla are found on the stems and branches. Aphids are on the younger shoot and the younger leaves and branch tips, the larger insects like Japanese beetle rose chafer, stinkbugs, you know, those are going to be found on the mature leaves and the developing fruit. Then there's really the frustrating ones like grape phylloxera, for example, that spend significant portions of their lives underground feeding on the roots. So it's good to know where these insects are going to be on the crop to know where you should be focusing your monitoring efforts. The other one is how did they, you know how did they get there? Where did they come from? As I mentioned, some rely on the crop for the full season. So they're resident, others will move in and out. But the other one to think about is there are some that are just blown in from outside the region. They don't spend their winters in Michigan. They just can't survive the cold. So they are blown in on spring and summer storm fronts. This is mainly an issue for a lot of vegetable and field crop growers but a couple of them that do impact fruit growers are things like a potato leafhopper and a fall armyworm. So being aware of what are the events that could cause these to show up is good to keep track of. So the last one think about it is where they are in your field, as in, you know, how are they distributed? You know, there's three different versions, you know there's multiple different types of distribution. Here's the common ones that you find with insects. The good thing is we don't have to think too hard about this because in virtually every case when it comes to insect pests in AG crops, they're generally just clumped in distribution. It could be for several reasons, those were healthier trees or crops, or maybe it's more stressed. Maybe those are gaps in your spray program or you've got a mix of varieties in your block. So multiple possible reasons. But yeah, the other thing to think about is clumping could be along the edges, you know, so if you have a pest that's moving in and out of your field or you have this strong edge effect that's clumped that's this clump distribution. Why does this matter? You know, for you to get more get an accurate sense of what's happening in your crop in your entire field, it takes multiple sampling. One site's not enough because if you pick that location you can have a chance to be in the middle of one of those clump sites. So you get an artificially high sense of the population or you happen to be outside of that clump and you get an artificially low sense of that population. If you take multiple sampling sites using multiple tools and multiple types of monitoring, you can get a better sense, a more accurate sense of what's happening. So that really covers, you know, the six 'W's of insect monitoring. So I've got a couple of minutes left. What we can do is we can focus this in and think about specific insects. You know, you can use the same six 'W's but in reality for today, we can skip the what, why and who cause those don't require us to understand insect behavior. The when, where, and how are really specific, really impacted by insect behavior when it comes to particular insect. So, first example, codling moth. Coddling moth is, you know you have the immatures feed inside the apples, the adults use pheromones. So, you know, pheromone trapping is very possible. They have a very predictable population you know, oh, sorry, life cycle development. So you have, you know, lots of tools available. This is a very well studied insect so we have all of this information. So what does this mean? As far as determining things like when, we have predictive models available Enviroweather has it built into the system, so you can go there. The other thing to think about is, you know when you think about where the insect, you know the immature feeds inside the Apple, you know, so sampling of the actual crop is important and the other thing to think about is, you know it can attack, you know, all year long. So you wanna be thinking about the adults for multiple generations, you want to be thinking about it all the way up through harvest. You know, we know what crops to look for where to look for them, the adults, you know something I mentioned here is tops of trees. This is because these insects use pheromones for meetings. So you want to put a trap up high because that's where in the evening when the insects are flying, the wind is more consistent. So that's where most of the mating occurs. So pheromone traps up high are going to give you more reliable information. Try to think of the top third of the tree if you can. You know, the other thing that we can't, you know, because they're not flying insects, there is the possibility of using blacklight trapping as well. So direct fruit sampling, pheromone trapping and using EvroWeather are very valuable in this case. What else? Some other insects that are similar, basically a lot of moths. Moths are really well known for using pheromones. So a lot, you know, these all have pheromones that are available for monitoring purposes. These all have development models in Enviroweather so you can use Enviroweather to determine when you need to be paying attention for these. You know, the larvae can be monitored for using direct sampling in most cases, couple of examples to that would be, oh sorry, exceptions to that would be like Oriental fruit moth. The early generations feed on the shoot tips rather than the fruit itself. So you gotta to kind of think about things a little bit differently there. Obliquebanded leafroller feeds on the leaf tissues. So, you know, it doesn't impact the fruit except for in high pest populations. You know, at least not in significant numbers and European corn borer is also, especially in things like herbs, they get into the stems rather than the fruit itself. Another example is San Jose Scale. You know, this insect, you know, it really doesn't move much at all. So, you know, you gotta take that into account. Pheromones have been identified. So trapping is possible, but it's limited to a small windows when you get that flying life-stage. You can trap for the for the crawlers using that sticky band around branches. I mentioned a little bit ago that one of the exceptions where you can use that passive trapping. So, you know, the other thing to think about as many of these, you know, that San Jose scale spend entire lives on a single tree in a lot of cases. So, you know, when you look, you know, you can pick two good times a year. One is when it's dormant cause they're spending their entire lives on the tree. You can do a dormant monitoring scouting or observation. You can also use harvest time because then it becomes quite obvious on ripening fruit when you have a San Jose scale problem and you can use that information and record that information to determine what to do for monitoring the next year. You can trap at different times of year and that can be pretty effective. You just have to time that really carefully. One thing to think about a good place to monitor for these whether you're doing scouting or sampling is to look in the middle of the canopy, the center of the canopy. That's typically because your spray coverage tends to not be as thorough and chemicals are that are really effective require really good, thorough, complete coverage. So you get more, you know, you tend to see higher populations in the center of the canopies Similar insects, a lot of these other small insects the scale, mite, Pear psylla or mealybug. A lot of them, you can monitor during the dormant stage of the crop of the plant. You look on the stems, you can see observations or you can see them in the centers of the canopies because of coverage because thorough coverage is necessary. And with a couple of them, you do have attract and traps that you have available to you. - Mike is five minutes to the end, it's 10:40 now. - Got it. Okay. I've got two more examples and then I'm done. How about that? Spotted Wing Drosophila, you know, this one really quick population development, we have attractants available, you know, because they developed so quickly, a lot of people will monitor, you know you can monitor, researchers monitor throughout the winter. You can go all the way in the spring, whatever because they develop so quickly. You don't necessarily have to monitor more than two or three weeks before that crop is susceptible. That gives you enough time to manage them but you do have to monitor quite regularly because they do develop quickly. They like the shaded parts of the crop down low, especially during the heat of the day. And, you know, we have trapping available. You can also take direct fruit samples. A couple of similar ones, Apple maggot, blueberry maggot. They're not identical, they don't have quite the development time like that. But you think of mid mid-summer, think of near harvest and, you know direct sampling of fruit works for blueberry maggot and so similar activities. Last one Brown Marmorated Stink Bug, single generation insect. So you only have one generation to worry about. You usually start monitoring mid summer. This is when that generation shows up. And, you know, you've got scouting, scouting along field edges is common because they do like a lot of other plant species. So they're bouncing in and out trying to find the most susceptible plant for them. So that's where you would put traps. You can do visual scouting on fruit itself. So, and we have good pheromones available. Similar ones would be Plum Curculio even though you're probably doing it earlier in the year for Plum Curculio but you use the same trap. Japanese beetle and Rose Chafer, both of those are single generation a year. And so, and they do feed on a lot of stuffs. You can monitor along that field edge. So quick summary, you know for you to understand how to use, you know for you to do the best at monitoring. It's really good to understand where, how and when an insect can infest the crop. You know, you have lots of materials, lots of tools, lots of techniques available. You know, some of them are good for answering the other six, the other W's so that you get a better sense of what's happening with that insect before you start monitoring. And one last thing I want to mention, keep good records. It's good for you to know what's happening on your field you know, for the future. So done. That's my contact information. If you want to talk more or you have any questions and I will leave it up for some questions - We have several questions. Mike, you make might want to put the survey link in the chat area. - Sure. Let me stop sharing so I can grab that real quick. And while we answer questions - Yeah. The one question is, is there a document that describes cutoff thresholds from different pests? You know, if you want more detailed information where would you go, especially on upper thresholds. - You're talking about things like population levels for when you should start management or are you trying to reference like a temperature thresholds for models and things like that. - Temperature, thresholds for models with different pests. I pointed the question to the Cornell of Scaffolds Newsletters which has quite a bit of that information in there. - Yep. Actually in Enviroweather, a lot of times if there's a model that we have put into Enviroweather, there is a tab at the bottom of that screen that will say about this model. And a lot of times in that about this model it does give information about, you know the lower threshold or the number of degree, days needed to reach a certain stage. Or sometimes if there's a range that it sits within for the development that's where you find a lot of that information. - Okay. - So multiple sources, I did just put the evaluation link in the chat for those looking for RUP credits. - Are there predictive conditions for aphids depends or is it based on the analogy - When you're thinking of like predictive models, for most aphid species, that's really not been well-developed because it's a combination of crop susceptibility and an aphid populations in the area. So, you know, you can have, you know, with young trees that are constantly budding out with new tissue, there are a lot more susceptible to a lot of these aphid species. where if you have a more mature crop that's not developing those new tissues very often, you have a much narrower range. so we don't have good models, but what you can use as a as kind of a good sense with most aphid species is they don't like hot temperatures. They don't like hot, dry conditions. So spring and fall are the really good times when aphids are really moving around a lot. - Okay. How to manage beneficials versus pest. That's kind of a broad question - When you're thinking about how to maybe monitor for them, - Managing I guess encouraged beneficials versus pest. - Sure. you know, providing a variety of food sources or nesting sources or over position so, you know, basically a varied habitat. So think of a flower strips or a wild stretch strips along the field edges, or maybe providing some variety of plants in your row middles or your ground cover rather than just grass. And, you know, being very selective with your insecticide choices, if you need to spray. - Okay. When would you expect lantern flies to show up in Southwest Michigan? Basically Pennsylvania. - Spotted lantern fly are moving slowly last this past year they were found in Eastern Ohio in one County. So we are having them kind of spread a little bit, but based on the prediction models that are out there for spread we thank goodness have as of right now, they're saying 10 plus years. I mean, that's based on just natural spreads. So it can happen at any point because they lay their eggs on basically anything and everything. So train, cars, RVs you know, if you remember from years ago hearing about the gypsy moth concerns it's the same basic deal with spotted lantern fly. So, you know, we have to be on the lookout now but hopefully we have a few years before we have to really worry about it. - Okay. One quick last question then we'll need to wrap things up. How do you guys address Japanese beetles? - Well, the good thing is here in Michigan they are not as an in Great Lakes area. They're not as bad as they were a few years ago. You know, we were dealing with, you know, the front of the invasion and that's where they get really high populations. That's past us now. So we have a lot of natural enemies that have built up pathogens that have built up in the natural environment that are helping keep them at bay. So for the most part, they're not a big concern for most people at this point. There are pockets where you get high populations. One thing to think about is if you are interested in trapping to see what sort of things you've, you know what sort of population you're dealing with in that trap in particular because it's a floral compound and a pheromone, Japanese beetle will be highly attracted to it, but they won't necessarily go into the trap. So if you put that trap in your crop, you're going to get lots of damage right around that trap. So make sure you put that trap somewhere where you're not going to cause that damage. So outside your field edge, you're drawing them away. Some people have tried to use that for management, it would require lots of traps. And so far, no one's been able to make it work consistently so. The good thing is there's the number of insecticides that are available if you feel like you have a problem. - Okay. Well, thank you. Any further questions you can contact Mike directly. Thank you Mike. Reminder, that if you want recertification credits, for one recertification credits we do not have any CCA credits with this. There's the link in the chat there. So click on that and finish it, you'll need to do that. Again, if you run into any issues, let us know and we might be able to help out. So I'll give a few more minutes for people to get that link. Then we'll be ending this session. You will need to log back into this webinar. We need to for recording purposes and statistics be able to end the session but it's the very same address that you used, link that you use to get back into it. And we'll be starting up again. The next one starts at 11:00 and we'll have the window open a little bit before then. - Yep. Okay. Once again. Thank you guys for showing up and we'll hopefully see all of you back here in just a few minutes. That's okay with you, Bill. I'll go ahead and end it now. And we'll just open it back up in three or four minutes. - Stop the recording.

You Might Also Be Interested In