Electric lighting is used in greenhouses to regulate the photoperiod to control flowering, or to increase growth to increase crop quality and yield. It is also used for sole-source lighting of plants grown indoors. A few books and summary articles are below, followed by more in-depth articles on specific topics.
- Light Management in Controlled Environments, a book edited by Roberto Lopez and Erik Runkle, contains 18 chapters written by 20 leading plant scientists about how light influences plant growth and development of specialty crops grown in greenhouses and controlled-environment growth rooms.
- LED Lighting for Urban Agriculture, a book edited by Toyoki Kozai, Kazuhiro Fujiwara, and Erik Runkle that focuses on light-emitting diode (LED) lighting for the commercial production of horticultural crops in plant factories and greenhouses. It contains 32 chapters written by plant scientists and engineers in Asia and the U.S.
- Use of Lighting to Accelerate Crop Timing by Erik Runkle and Matthew Blanchard, Michigan State University.
- Greenhouse Glazing by A.J. Both, Rutgers University.
Published on May 10, 2023
Although expensive, there are potential benefits to growing indoors. This article provides an overview of some major considerations when developing an indoor lighting system.
Published on March 5, 2023
The science, engineering, and application of horticultural lighting continues to advance with developments in light-emitting diode (LED) technology.
Published on January 5, 2023
This article summarizes an experiment with lettuce and kale when grown indoors under different white light-emitting diodes (LEDs).
Published on November 16, 2022
Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) come in all shapes and sizes, emit different colors and intensities, and have a range of energy efficacies. This article outlines how to get started with supplemental greenhouse lighting with LEDs.
Published on October 6, 2022
Far red is a waveband of light that is marginally visible to us but has profound effects on plant growth and development; it increases both plant elongation and biomass accumulation.
Published on August 3, 2022
In part two of this four-part series, we respond to questions about lighting, carbon dioxide enrichment, co-optimization, and sterility within indoor farms.
Published on August 1, 2022
Light-emitting diodes are rapidly advancing, but there are other technologies that supplement or modify the solar spectrum that could also have applications in horticulture.
Published on May 11, 2022
When other plants are nearby, they detect changes in the light environment and try to out-compete their neighbors. Understanding this shade-avoidance response can help growers to promote or prevent this response, depending on the growth desired.
Published on March 9, 2022
We have quantified the temperature and light responses of common bedding plant crops to better understand their impacts on production time and quality.
Published on February 7, 2022
Blue light generally inhibits extension growth and thus can act as a plant growth retardant (PGR), particularly when crops are grown indoors or in greenhouses during low-light periods.
Published on January 5, 2022
This article discusses recent advances in the efficacy (energy efficiency) of light-emitting diodes for plant applications.
Published on October 5, 2021
In part 3 of a 5-part series on the indoor production of leafy greens, the interactive effects of far-red light and light intensity on lettuce growth are discussed.
Published on September 8, 2021
This article discusses the effects of the light spectrum on plants, and conceptually how it can be used for different greenhouse and indoor crop production applications.
Published on September 6, 2021
In part 2 of a 5-part series on the production of leafy greens indoors, this article discusses how substituting white light (broad spectra) with red and/or blue light influences lettuce production.
Published on August 6, 2021
The daily light integral (DLI) refers to the cumulative amount of light received per day, which influences the quality and yield of horticultural crops. This article discusses ways to increase the DLI for plants grown in greenhouses.
Published on July 7, 2021
Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are known for their efficiency at converting electricity into light. While efficacy is a very important consideration, there is more to them than just their μmol×J–1.
Published on July 1, 2021
This 24-page guide provides research-based information about producing young plants indoors (without sunlight) under LEDs. Developed in partnership with GrowerTalks magazine.
Published on June 7, 2021
In the first article of a five-part series on indoor production of leafy greens, we join the lighting debate discussing white versus red and blue light from a crop production perspective.
Published on May 6, 2021
LED fixture come in all shapes, sizes and outputs — more technically, photon fluxes and spectra. This article explains the photon flux emitted by a light fixture and why it is important.
Published on April 7, 2021
High light can at least partly decrease the effects of other environmental parameters on greenhouse crops. These can be considered “hidden” benefits because the effects are often not obvious.
Published on April 5, 2021
By producing plants indoors under sole-source lighting, not only can we control plant traits by manipulating the light quality and/or quantity. but we can potentially produce more resilient plants.
Published on March 7, 2021
Conceptually, anything growers can do to increase photosynthesis and decrease respiration can increase growth, leading to thicker stems, faster rooting, more branches, and more and larger flowers and fruits
Published on February 10, 2021
In this article, we discuss light sensors, light units, and how to convert light units from a greenhouse environmental control computer into more meaningful values.
Published on December 14, 2020
The fundamental advantages of light-emitting diode (LED) lighting are clear, but it is still a relatively new technology and unfortunately, one can be reminded of that when the jump is made to replace conventional lighting fixtures with LEDs.
Published on November 9, 2020
A large number of ornamental crops flower earlier when grown under long days. This article describes the major considerations when selecting a photoperiodic lighting system to regulate flowering.