China’s Environmental Protection Law (EPL) is the main national environmental legislative framework. Yet the environmental legal system is incomplete, and implementation and enforcement of environmental laws have shown major shortcomings ( 1– 3). A controversial attempt to revise the EPL could have far-reaching impacts on China’s economic development and environmental protection, which may have global implications ( 4, 5). Increasing pressures to strengthen the rule of law in China raise the stakes ( 6). We discuss the need for a sound legal and scientiï¬ c basis for revising the EPL.