Key Insect Pests and Diseases of Small Fruits

March 23, 2022

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Video Transcript

 Hi everyone. Welcome to day 3 of week two, I've already told you this but the fruit track of MI Ag Ideas to grow with Happy Ag week Happy Ag month We are so glad you're here. Today. We are talking about small fruits. so today we are talking about insects of small fruits, as well as diseases of small fruits followed up by Depending on how much time we have. with some question and answer at the end let's move on, like I said, its Michigan Ag Ideas to grow with supported by Greenstone and north central Sare which is Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education. Yeah. Oh, Week 3. Happy to be here. I'm excited. You're excited. It's gonna be great. and so first. Today we're going to have Carlos talking, Carlos is based in Northern Michigan He is the anything north of, Allegan and north district correct? Yes the upper bit, yes and Carlos is a small fruit educator And he will be telling us all about some key insects and small fruits. So take it away Carlos Okay. Good afternoon everybody. We are going to talk about IPM scouting in blueberries. When, and how, This is a presentation that we have been using of with for people that start to be in the blueberry business. And they want to know how to control insects in their plantations. There are many insects, so, but we are going to center our presentation on those insects that are really important for our industry. Normally we have in the top with the seasonality of the insects can be pretty blue. The blue with season pre-harvest scattered in post-harvest. The first insect that we see in the feel is the gill wasp then we have the cranberry fruit worm and cherry fruit worm in blue. and next we have the blueberry maggot, this used to be one of the more important pest, but then became the spotted wing Drosophila and mess around everything. So we're going to talk about these three insects The fruit worm is a complex of insect that start early in the season. We have a cranberry fruit worm that's a large around one centimeter and a half. And the cherry fruit worm that this is smaller one it looks like a colli worm but it's not a colli worm The difference is in that bands of silver in dark across like  salt and pepper. And the Cranberry one has a triangle underpins. The cranberry fruit worm, normally start immersing early in the season around be bloom period. There those come in then at the calyx of the fruitlets start off depositing And I pick a start inside of the calyx In the early summer we start to see some of the blueberries around our glossier grain foods that's symptomatic of worm infestation. Of the cranberry fruit worm or cherry fruit worm. Inside will find a warm. Green, pale green. And at the end of the fall they will come up into the ground and you pay and it will continually cycle. Next. We monitor this insect pheromone traps that traps used for detecting the abundance of the population that we have been revealed in. Also, the timing of the activity. will be very important for us because we are going to establish the timing when we are going to start applying insecticides. We place the traps in the edge of the field near to the woods. So there are woods, are places where we consider that are infested every year. We count the moths Every week. Then we remove them. We use pheromone traps for monitoring. There are four types of pheromone traps that we can find commercially. But some of them are very cheap like this one. But also there are some defective traps that with the first rain or wind, they will become problematic. We prefer to use the delta plastic trap. with an insert that you can remove count the  moths and put it back. And it is the best and more efficient trap that we have for the full worms. The next step with your monitoring is identify what you have in the traps that you see here. This is the cherry fruit worm. The salt and pepper. And the cranberry fruit worm the one with the triangles. You need to make sure that with early disease you do not confuse the cranberry fruit worm with these leaf rollers. These are the typical leafrollers that We find in blueberries early in the season, but is not the best. So make sure that you find it and if you have doubts about this call your extension agent for help. Here is a another view. We have the cherry fruit worm and this is the contaminants. In the cherry fruit worm and the  contaminants Here we have the cranberry fruit worm in a larger picture. And again, the difference inside is like 15 to 18 millimeters long the cranberry fruitworm and the moth for the cherry fruitworm is around 8 to 10 millimeters long. The important thing is to be able to identify the eggs once the eggs start laying on the fruits. Normally, the cranberry fruitworm is opaque, like a rugose, not, not smooth. Compare with the cherry fruitworm, which is round, bumpy, and also a very shiny. This characteristic is for me very important because I can put the fruit against the sun and they will shine and I will know when they are there. So the scouting, we go about 10 to 20, bushes, dependent on the size of the field we have. We scout the fruit clusters and we check the leaves for the eggs. They are going to be here. And now we count them and we find them. So this is the, for example, the cranberry fruitworm eggs. You can see them. They are always laid against, the calyx and they are opaque. Two days later they start developing that ring. And then three to four days later you can see the shell, the worm, is in the egg, And finally here you have the egg has been hatched and the worm has been left to go into the fruit. In the case of the cherry fruitworm, this is always lie very close to the bottom of the calyx. And here you have a like a two or three days later becoming yellow. And again, four days later you can see the head of the warm already developing inside the egg. Once we have this insects hatched, we need to monitor for the presence of fruit infestation. We are going to find a larvae inside of the fruit. Here, we have that the cranberry fruit completely developed is like a green with yellow pale, and it's around 15 to 18 millimeter long. And the cherry fruit worm is pink. And all, this is more like eight to ten millimeters long. One difference with the cranberry fruit worm as the cherry fruitworm, is that the cranberry fruitworm leaves the egg and goes around the fruit and enters into the fruit by the petals. And also you can see the difference when you see the berry infestation in the field. You can see a single berry infested in the fruit cluster. means that this is infested by the cherry fruitworm. The multiple berry's infested attached by the silk worm. This is infestation of the cranberry fruitworm, the cherry fruitworm needs only one fruit or development. And the cranberry fruitworm needs multiple berries to be developed. Here you can see the difference in a more clear picture. The large worm, a lot of rust around the, the, the cluster. And here you have the cherry fruitworm a single lonely worm, and a single lonely berry in the field. The control of these insects start by studying the trap cell in the season and before bloom. And then 100 degree days after the emergence of the flies. There, I'm sorry, with the moths, we have the application of the first insecticide. Normally we use the instagrow regulator like confirm or intrepid. And then 400 degree days. We have the petals fall. We can put the second application. It could be, again, confirm or intrepid, or even Bt, except gravity doesn't work during the cold springs. And finally we have the fourth application at the end of the petal fall that can use, we can use lenage or we can use piretroids, like a max control. So the way to set the traps early before bloom, we said the vital fix of the trap today, that the traps are continued incurring moths inside. The first eggs already start to appear in the bushes around 90 degree days. And the first application is early in the season and you need to keep spraying. Normally the  cranberry fruit worm is the latest showing up in the field is around seven to 14 days later when the cherry fruitworm. You use the Degree Day Model you need to monitor the weather. Normally what happens is we said that on 300 degree days. we set the traps in the field. The Degree Days are by 50 accumulated from March 1st in Ottawa and Van Buren County does happen around 375 Degree Days. And the first eggs aren't showing up around, around 460 Degree Days. And we are infested by moths  when we are checking the traps like a 3 or 4 times during the week and we see the the moths are coming into the trap the first day when we start seeing these continued trapping. This is our biophilic state. For more details, you need to visit the website at The insecticide that we recommend at the Reduces Risk program. Confirm or Asana. Asana again is needed. And also we need to check for fruit infestation. You need to inspect closely from five different sites. From each get five to 10 for 5 to 10 naked floods before each harvest and to assess infestation. The next best step we have with the blueberry stem gall wasp. That was not a problem until more recently when  it showed up. This is a pest that was controlled by the application of bultium, but seeing that Bultium is out of the picture. The pest is coming, coming back and really destroying a lot of blueberry fields, especially in West and Central Michigan. We estimate around 3000 acres of blueberries have been removed. And due to the problem with the gall wasp. They gall wasp emerge from the galls and then goes about in  the fruit and in the shoots. This is our tender growth. And you can see here the scar, where, that the fly inserted their ovipositor and also put the egg. The next you see the big galls are forming around  the egg. Here you have the young gall. And here is the mature gall and it adherence into the winter. Here in this picture, you may see here it is inserting the ovipositor in the tender tissues and the the tip of the bush. And you may see here the scar left by the damage caused by the ovipositor. But in this case, this is a variety that is resistance. When we are resistant variety, you can see here the oviposition, but no gall developed, only leave a scar over there. However, when we have a susceptible variety, after the oviposition you can start seeing  the forming of the gall. And here a lot of worms inside. The varieties that are more susceptible are Jersey, Northern. Pemberton, and Bluejay. Less susceptible, but still problematic is Liberty and Aurora. Duke is less susceptible. Legacy, Luera, Sierra, and Patriots. The more resistance to the gall wasp is Elliot, Bluegold, Spartan, look love, Bluray, Draper, Nelson, and Waymount. This is how the blueberry stem wasp works. Normally during February, March. They are in the larval stage, and beginning in May they start pupating inside of the galls, and late May and June coming out of the galls. And then this is the June you'll timing for the application of the insecticide. one of the insecticide that looks promising is Sibento. This is a good insecticide that research has shown very promising results. For more information on these insecticides, you need to go to the Michigan fruit management guide. There you will find all the options for controlling the gall wasp. The next insect is the blueberry maggots. The blueberry maggot  used to be the major pest that we have in blueberries until the arrival of spotted wing  Drosophila in 2010. They're blueberry maggot, looks very much like the apple maggots. It looks like a little spiders. And the difference is that with other flies is the presence of patterns in their, in their wings. They look like an M in inverted or like a W. Depends how you see it. They emerge middle of the summer and once they feed for like ten days. They start laying eggs and this is when they start looking for fruits. Then they deposit a single, a single egg in February and they inserted their ovipositor there. And the worm, it looks like this. It's a white with a pair of hooks from their mouth. One of the problems with the blueberry maggot is that they are carried like any other fly, as symbionts that these bacteria like E coli, the liquefy blend fruits around the baby warm and once it liquefied, they use the hooks in their mouth to suck up the juice like an alien. Or normally the population of the blueberry maggot appears from mid June to  end of August, with the peak during the second week of July. We use a sticky traps, yellow sticky traps for monitoring. Those traps are loaded with ammonium acetate as an attractant. It looks like a smell, like a diapers. They love it and they are attracted to these ones. We get these insects in the trap. We have around one week to prepare for their control. The smell of diapers attract the fly, and they feed on bird poop, droppings. And now this is why they are attracted to the ammonium acetate. Here is pheromone trap, actually a sticky trap that we use with a lure. It contains ammonium acetate to attract the fly. Another way to monitor the fly is using the spheres loaded with fruit. Flavors or smell also can use ammonium acetate and they are attracted to the big sphere. They are thinking that they got this huge berry. But this just a sphere. We do not have any recommendation at this time for insecticide application. Because then it comes, the spotted wing Drosophila. Any insecticide that we use again, Spring Wing  Drosophila normally takes care of the blueberry maggots. The Spotted Wing Drosophila came in 2010. By 2013, the number of applications in comparison went from two per season. And during harvest time against the blueberry maggot up to 16 application in some cases. It was devastating. Now, our industry, the characteristics of the spotted wing drosophila is that they have a huge ovipositor, serrated that they use to cut the fruit inside  and insert an egg. The egg is very characteristic, it has a head, these are breathing tubes. Once they cut the hole in the fruit, they insert their eggs. And the eggs when it looks like this, this is a trail that they are breathing through. So you can see multiple ovipositions in one single berry. In one berry you may find six or seven worms. They do not discriminate. Already infested fruits. Once the worm grows, it can be seen here like an opening that is a hole where the larva, the larva is start breathing because they need fresh air. And you see here the sunken area is caused by the basically liquefy the fruit with a symbiont bacteria. And they are feeding exactly the same way  as the blueberry maggot. Remember, this is the larva. You can see the cooks where they used for, this is mouth. These are the lungs. And this is basically, this is the nose. We monitored the spotted wing Drosophila using yeast  and also commercial lures. We have the yeast mixed inside of the container, plastic container with the holes around the area to allow the insects to come inside. And the bate is right here. We can put that sticky cards inside to allow the insect to land over there and then we can count them or we can not put anything. But then we have to fish the insects  out of the mix. So this is a messy business. The other is using the commercial lure. This is cleaner and also attract only spotted wing Drosophila flies. And this is just simple water with a drop of the dish soap, dish wash Soap, to allow the insects to sink into the barrel. Early in the season is much useful to have yeast mix to attract the females coming from, from outside. And then we can switch to the commercial lure. So that recommended insecticide program is we need to control the first adults arriving into our field. We can use lannate Immediately. We can use a second application five days after lannate. We can use Mustang mix next or malathion. If the temperature is low, then you have a third application. And depending on whatever you apply previously. But we can use that Imidan as another alternative. After application, we can repeat the second application like a mustang mix or malathion. So when we use a systems approach, we need to continue monitoring. We need to set one trap, every 5 to 10 acres. We can use the tracing lures or the sugar and yeast mix. We need to set traps near to the woods or the places close to where the flies are coming up. We have to monitor the presence of worms in the fruit using a salt solution. We get the fruits from the field and we submerged in solution of salt water, you will see the worms come in and flopping in the water. The most effective Insecticides need to be really well sprayed. You need good coverage. And also you need to rotate. Broad-spectrum insecticides, Lannate, malathion, Imidan, then Mustang mix, Danitol, Brigade, and Hero. Hero, is a mix of brigade with mustang mix, So you need to use Mustang mix and make sure that when you apply hero, you are also applying mustang mix, so there is a certain number of applications of mustang mix allowed in the season. So make sure that you count the hero application. It's also a mustang mix application. Also, we have our reduced risk insecticides, very effective. Delegate and Radiant. And we have Entrust and Pyganic. More recently we have Landivo are very effective against the spotted wind drosophila, Invenerate. When we need to time the insecticide application we need to consider the weather forecast. So we need to consult the Enviroweather. We need to select the insecticides that are appropriate. So if there is rain in the forecast, using an insecticide that is not going to wash away, immediately. Check the life stage of the insect in the field. Some insecticides will work very well against larvae, but not against adults. Check the crop conditions. If you are already in the flowering or ripe stage, you need to be very careful with what kind of insecticide you're going to spray. Also we have rain, you need to spray after the rain. And  also consider the penetration with insecticide to meet the maximal residue limits allow. You need to understand the label with pre-harvest interval. Remember to prune your bushes on a regular basis. You don't prune, you are going to have tremendous problem with spotted wing drosophila. So that's it. If you have any questions, I'll be ready to answer them. Awesome, Carlos. Sweet! So I think this is going to be a pretty quick one. So Lilly asked, if you see gall wasps starting on just a few blueberry plants, can that be controlled by pruning off the affected stem? That's an awesome question. Yes, if you only like 10 or 20 bushes, and you see these galls  forming on the tip of the bush, Just prune them and burn them. Don't leave them around. Just crush them or burn them or do whatever you do to get rid of them. If you have a small plot, like 5 acres, and you are seeing some of these galls, one there, another there, very sparsely distributed in the field. The best thing to do is just go and prune them and cut those branches and burn them. Awesome, so I'm gonna start sharing because, so our next speaker is presenting to us virtually. And by virtually, I mean, he sent us a recording, So I'll be sharing it with everyone. The one, the only, Tim Miles! He's is the small fruit and small fruit and hops pathologist at Michigan State University. And he's talking about some of the different diseases of small fruits. Hello everyone. My name is Timothy Miles and I am focusing today on some of the key diseases that you might find in small fruits, specifically, diseases that you might find in Michigan. The image in the back here is a field located in Northern Michigan. A struggle. So research program I run at Michigan State University is called small fruit and hop pathology. So what that means is basically focus on diseases that affect those plants and just like people, plants get sick too. So if you'd like to get any information from me after I do this talk, feel free to follow me on Twitter. But also you're really feel free to email me, and this is my email address right here. This is a picture of me if I'm not coming through in the presentation. And some of the areas of expertise that I work on. I work on grapes, blueberries, strawberries, hops, as well as raspberries. The talk today won't talk about raspberries or hops, but it's something that our program does. Besides those diseases, we also look at post-harvest issues in those crops. We look at fungicide resistance and also molecular detection of different planet patches. So the talk outline today is going to going to do a general overview of plant diseases and what you might find and look for in your field, as well as some crop specific diseases. So there's some that are very common  to each crop, and if I had time, we'd go through all of them, but it's going to be a kind of a quick snap shot over three crops. And at the very end I will talk a little bit about detritus in strawberries. The image here is sporulation of detritus on a grape cluster, a thin skin variety called aurora in grapes, late season, probably mid to late August. So plants really get infected in a lot of different ways by various pathogens. So this is just our official tomato plant right here that's infected with a lot of different issues. But it kinda gives you a general idea of where and what diseases you might find depending on what tissue type you're looking at in the plant. So oftentimes if you're thinking the roots, you might think root rots that can occur and that can screw up water and nutrient movement from the soil. You're going to have xylem infections which will cause wilting and cankers in plants that can interfere with water transport. You can have phloem infections that can also be related to cankers developing. You can have foliage infection and that's kinda a little more common in the small fruit issues. And that can be leaf spots, rust, mildews, other things. And that can interfere with a plant's ability to make, to do photosynthesis. And then finally, you can have flower and fruit infections and that can interfere with the development of those fruits or you can have rotting of those fruits. So anyway, a lot of things can really happen and go wrong in a plant. And pathogens are kind of at the heart of these issues. So one, a good plant pathology, talk wouldn't be anything without the disease triangle. So this is really an important element of the science of thinking about plant diseases. And really there are three main elements that derive what cause disease. So if these three elements aren't present, you won't have disease. So this, these things usually we refer to as susceptible plant, which is right here underneath the host. A pathogen that's capable of causing the disease. And then finally, a favorable environment. And that's really important without all three of these elements, you actually won't get disease and there won't be a disease in a field. And really, you can actually use this triangle in some ways to predict disease. So if environments not really conducive or say it's hot and dry and the pathogen really likes wet environments, you probably will have less disease. So if you plan a resistant cultivar instead of a susceptible one, you'll also probably have less disease or very little or no disease. So essentially, you can use this triangle as more of a predictive model than anything too. And as I said, if, if one of these is missing, there won't be disease. So when you think about managing, plant diseases, this is something you'll find. You'll also find in entomology literature, and it's the idea of IPM or integrated pest management. And really a good pest management program has a lot of ways to manage diseases. And sometimes people call this the pillars of the pest management program. And you can think there's biological, chemical, behavioral, cultural, and genetics. And some of this is borrowed a little bit from entomology. But you get this general idea that this can be applied pretty easily to most plant diseases. And one of the main parts of this is actually sampling. And I'd say in plant pathology, this is a really important aspect of doing IPM. If you really don't know what you're managing, it's quite difficult to go after different forms of pest management. And beyond that, there's a lot of other areas like, such as the underlying biology, the ecology of the system, and so forth. So really all of these taken together is what really makes a great pest management program. But I'm going to start off, because I think since this is more of a introduction to these diseases, I'm going to start off with more the sampling in determining really what's wrong. So that would be diagnostics, basically, so some of the basic steps to diagnostics really are asking good questions and establish a good background situation, kind of getting a better sense of your system. So since this is a general interest talk of these diseases, really learning who those pathogens are in a particular crop can be very helpful. These crops that I'm talking about have really been grown for a long, long time. So there's a lot of resources. So using your sources really can also help. Being really attentive to signs and symptoms, as well as, you know, the first thing is to always figure out if you think a disease is happening. You might want to see whether it's actually a pathogen that's causing the disease or it's some sort of other stressor, Did an herbicide go through the field? Or are there other aspects that look kind of like a disease, but are not, not quite. Your seeing the symptoms but not the same pattern that you might see with a pathogen. And, and then the next, the last thing to do after you go through these diagnostic processes is really to do a formal diagnostic test. So I should say that Michigan State University has a lot of web resources. And I think that that's probably one of the main things to kind of focus on as you dive deeper into play and diseases related to these really the small fruits. And I mean, other universities as well have a lot of resources too, so MSU resources to think about- We have web  resources such as the grape scouting reports. Every week over the past couple of years, we put out a scouting report. And that's been quite helpful to kind of get folks aware of what diseases we're seeing and then maybe what to look for. We have fact sheets that go in depth on specific topics and specific pathogens and specific diseases. And that can be quite helpful as you're thinking about new diseases. As a diagnostic guide, our scouting guide can be quite helpful. So we have two of those, one for grape and one for blueberry. And those are now mobile, so you can download those on your phone. And again, when you think about employing a type of diagnostic test, we have a diagnostic clinic at MSU, called The Plant Pest Diagnostic Clinic. So a lot of our resources do link back to this clinic. If you really get stumped and can't figure out what's wrong, that's really quite a good resource. So going into a specific system. So this is one of my examples for blueberries. So blueberries in Michigan do have a lot of endemic diseases. We don't have too many invasives that were quite concerned about, But there are plenty of endemic diseases that we should be worried about in blueberries. Some of these go from mummy berry, which is this picture up here. It gets its name because the fruits fall on the ground and they look like little mummies, kind of. And they produce a mushroom like structure in the spring. You'll have twig blights, and this can be a lot of different things, but generally speaking, this is a die back of the sheet. So that can happen. Blueberries are a perennial crop and every year you'll get some level of dieback. And that's typically caused by a fungus. Also, you can have detritus blossom blight fruit rot. And that's kinda what it sounds like. It's a fungus that affects the flowers. But if it does affect the flowers, basically they won't produce. It won't be able to be pollinated. They won't turn into green fruits, and they won't turn into ripe fruits obviously. So a direct yield loss, probably our most challenging disease from a commercial grower perspective is really Anthracnose fruit rot. So this is a tough disease. It starts at bloom, and then it really doesn't manifest itself until later in the season. But it's quite an important disease. There's also Alternaria fruit rot, which is a different type of fruit rot up here, that's this disease. And really you're not going to necessarily see either the sporulated too much in the field unless it's really humid. But basically the fruit will end up looking shriveled and it won't be marketable. We also have a disease, and I put that in quotes down here called replanted disease. And that really occurs when you're considering a new planting. And the new planting isn't establishing very well. So basically the bushes aren't growing very vigorously. And there's probably a numerous underlying factors that could be pathogens, it could be nematodes, it could be a lot of other related things that's in that field, could be pH problems and so forth. We have also, we have a leaf rust, which is a late season disease you can see and that can cause defoliation in blueberries. And finally, we have a lot of viruses. So there's about, there's, there's several viruses that effect blueberries, some are more widespread than others. But really there's quite a few diseases to think about and probably not enough time to talk about all of them. But these are ones to be concerned about. Mummy berry, as I said, it's probably one of our big diseases. It kind of starts our management season. So when you think about mummy berry it's typically the first one that growers are actively trying to control. And when growers are coding and saying what they're targeting using their IPM strategies. That early part of their management really is tailored towards mummy berry management, about 40% of those applications in the beginning of the season really focus on mummy berry. And mummy berry is the first,  the first thing really being controlled maybe besides weeds in a blueberry field every year. So it's always at the top of everyone's list. And Michigan, we've got a really good handle on this disease. But, you know, 10 or 20 years ago, we had to use a lot more applications to manage this disease. The other two major diseases that I would mention is  anthracnose fruit rot and that's the one I showed earlier. That's it's caused by a fungus that affects that's called Colletetrichum acutatum And it basically causes this orange sporulation on the fruit. And they all, this is, these infections mostly happened back at bloom and it takes a while for this to manifest itself in a field. So this one almost requires like a season long management approach. Finally, this is Alternaria fruit rot. This occurs really late season. Oftentimes if a fruit doesn't get harvested quickly, This can be one of the major diseases to think about. Should say we also have a lot, I mentioned this in the beginning, we have these fact sheets that are available. So for blueberries, we have a fact sheet series called michigan blueberry facts. And for some of these big diseases, we have whole fact sheets that go in detail about the symptoms, the disease cycle. How might you manage those and so forth. And this one right here is an example for virus and virus like diseases of blueberries. Also over here is one for Alternaria fruit rot. So this, you can get much more detail about what fungicides might work for viruses. Is there certain areas that have more of one virus? Should you do nematode sampling before you plant? Some diseases like viruses are really more of a preventative thing. Once you have them in your field, you can't really get rid of them. But some of these like Alternaria you're actually actively trying to manage every year. Okay, move into our next crop here is rapes. So grapes have a lot of different diseases that attack them as well. Some of the main fungal or fungal-like diseases I bolded here. And we'll go into some of those in detail in a minute. So there's several that affect things that are caused by fungi. There's also several that cause bacterial that are caused by bacteria yeast. And then finally, there's ones that are caused by viruses, just like with blueberries. I'm really not going to focus on the viruses as much. That's more of a pre-plant situation. So if you were going to consider a new plant, getting virus tested stock is really important. But really don't have enough time to focus on that part of those. But there are a number of tingd to think about with grapes. Also, if you're thinking, doing a planting, thinking about crown gall and Grapevine trunk disease can be important because these are mostly stressors often related to frost. And picking. A really good site to plant a vineyard can be really critical to control these two diseases Long-term. Really for this, I'm just going to run through some of the major ones that we're going to actively manage during the season. So those I bolded here. So Phomopsis is kind of just like I mentioned with the mummy berry for blueberry, Phomopsis and the next disease I'm going to talk about Black rot, are really the first two diseases that need to be managed in a vineyard. Typically anywhere between one and 10 in shoot growth is when you kind of start management. Spores overwinter and survive on shoots basically, and that's what you're trying to control. in the early season. A lot of the cultural practices to control both Phomopsis and black rot are similar. It's really about increasing air circulation in the vineyard and then trying to keep the vines as dry as possible throughout the year. And if they do get wet, often, you'll have more Phomopsis and black rot that come up. The symptoms look like this, they're small folio lesions, but the main problem is that later in the season they'll affect the fruit. So black rot is a little different. Um, it's also a fungus. It survives as mummies, so they basically had a fruit fall onto the ground if they're infected the previous year. You can also get leaves that had these little black pimples. And those survive that way too in leaf litter. And essentially early in the season, those will splash and move up to the canopy and infect leaves, but also fruit. And early in the season you're really trying to manage these, these, this inoculum or the spores. Culturally removing these spores by getting rid of the mummies underneath the ground is actually a really great practice. Keeping a kind of a clean under story. And then likewise, thinking of the last disease with Phomopsis. pruning can be really helpful. Okay. Our next disease is powdery mildew. And this is also a fungus. It can infect really lots of different parts of the great canopy. It's the next disease to think about, and it's aptly named because it has this white powdery like growth on leaves and shoots. And this is one of the hardest and probably the most critical diseases in grapes worldwide. It requires season long management because you basically reproduces every three days under optimal conditions. So it's quite a difficult disease to get your, get a handle on. If you have a really lush growing, active canopy. In dry climates or in humid climates really. So it's an important disease and infections can basically ruin the ability to do photosynthesis. So plants don't put enough sugar into the fruit, but also it can infect the fruit and then cause it to become scaly and split. And that can lead to other diseases that can occur in the fruit. Really, there's not a lot of cultural resistance to powdery mildew. The most cultivars are in fact, are susceptible. Downy mildew is the other foliar disease that we have. Really in Michigan, even though powdery mildew is the most critical probably worldwide, downy mildew is probably the most critical in Michigan. So this is a major disease. If you're growing grapes in any humid climate, this disease can cause defoliation. It can affect clusters and can destroy inflorescences of fruit and you'll lose yield. But it's the one thing that's different about this. This is caused by a fungal like organism or a water mold, and it really thrives in wet environments. And basically it survives in the vineyard floor and it's going to be there once it gets established every single year. So it really just like powdery mildew, really requires all season long management. Defoliation can become really dramatic when you think about downy mildew and this looks like a frost went through here, but in fact, that's like early September in Northern Michigan and it hadn't, it's just that there was really a lot of defoliation that's going to occur. All these leaves will probably fall off in another week. So that, it can be quite dramatic. And that means that these fruit is going to hang there for a few more, several more weeks to get the bricks levels higher and then they'll ripen and there'll be a harvest. The problem is it's really stressful for the vine because the vine has to survive the winter. And if it, if it's lost a lot of its leaves, it doesn't put on as much carbohydrates and starch. So it can actually kill vines down. Another disease which I had earlier is Botrytis bunch rot. So this is botrytis affecting the fruit. And this can be driven by other types of damage such as birds and insects. Essentially, if a little bits in the, in the cluster, it's okay. Often it's called noble rot if it's a little bit, but if it's a lot, you won't have any fruit. So it can be a problem. It does help break down sugars and breakdown fruit a little bit. So it can help with the winemaking process, but it can cause a lot of issues. We also have another rot called sour rot. And this one is basically not a good thing. It's driven by yeast and bacteria, but also thrives when there's a lot of insect activity. So if temperatures are warm and it's humid, you can get quite a bit of insect activity once the fruit get above about 15 bricks. So any variety that's got a tight cluster such as like Pinot Noir and Vignoles those sorts of varieties. Really can get quite a bit of sour rot. So I'm going to switch crops one more time and talk about strawberries. So strawberries, this is, these are our, these are the effective cultural management practices that we do in strawberries that really help with diseases. So we do doing things like crop rotations can be quite helpful. Covering strawberries to reduce winter damage, which was just done here. And I think the straw was just uncovered. Renovation. So a lot of the strawberries that we grow in Michigan, our June bearing strawberries. So the harvest is at the end of June or early July, and then they can be renovated or basically mowed to reduce a lot of that old foliage. That can be quite helpful. It also causes them to runner. And there are some resistant varieties that can be used when possible. And really fungicides do do play a critical role. One issue, because we keep strawberries in Michigan and a perennial fashion though, these beds are kept year over year. It's this disease called Black root rot. And black root rot is often, there's lot of organisms in this group that are just called root nibblers or they slowly nibble at the roots and cause them to die. And it gets worse year over year if strawberries are in the same bed. So it's caused by several different pathogens, which is rhizoctonia, Pythium and lesion nematodes, But there's also other fungi involved. And really this disease over time can really drive a bed to have to be replanted and put a cover crop. And so it's an important disease in strawberry in Michigan.  There are a lot of conventional fungicide programs that are effective in strawberries and are really critical such as anything, the controls gray mold or botrytis in strawberry can be really good if it's timed correctly, so it's things like around bloom and forward. Fungicides do have a dramatic impact on common leaf spot, which you'll see quite a bit, and anything on powdery mildew also anthracnose crown rot, fungicides can be effective on that. And also this is  Phomopsis leaf spot. So there's some of the main things that if you applied a fungicide, that's what they would kind of target in strawberries. Now, conventional fungicides are not effective on everything. This is an example of angular leaf spot is caused by a bacteria. Fungicides won't really work on angular leaf spot. Leather rot. It has it's not terribly effective. And it would have to be on a slightly different product. So usually fungicides don't particularly work well on leather rot or on Red Steel. So typical fungicides don't really do a great job at controlling some of these diseases. So with my time left, I just wanted to dive deeply into just Botrytis on strawberry. So this is an important disease in strawberries. It's probably the most critical disease to manage and control in strawberries. And it affects strawberries and a lot of different life stages. So this is just the development of strawberries during the season. You can see that this is, this is generally the life cycle of Botrytis cinerea, the causal agent of gray mold. So it'll survive on plant debris. It will infect, in the spring. Typically, if, if, if conditions are right it will infect at bloom and at the green fruit stage, and it will also cause an infection. And then you'll basically have a lot of gray mold that can occur. But this part, depending on the conditions, can happen over and over again. And it can basically these infections concede infections to bloom or infections to mature fruit. And this part can repeat itself. And that's what we call polycyclic disease because it has multiple cycles. So there are a couple different forms of control. There are cultural control practices for Grey mold, but there's also chemical control practices and there are a number of different things you can do culturally to manage gray mold. of strawberry. This is just a long list, but crop rotations, anything for good air, soil drainage, adequate spacing, avoid overhead irrigation, scouting and looking for a pre-bloom. symptoms. Avoid excess nitrogen if you can help it that promote the dense foliage. Harvest frequently, renovate following harvest, covering the strawberries, removing infected plant tissue, and then utilizing resistive varieties. So there's a lot of different things you can do to help manage this disease. But if these fail or we need additional control strategies. There's also chemical control and there are Some major classes that are used to control Botrytis. And I should point out the fruit management guides, so if you ever have a question about what to manage and  when the manage it, I would consult the Michigan fruit Management Guide. It has our most up-to-date recommendations about chemicals and pesticides in strawberries. And that's sort of the, the, the, the go-to guide. The issue with Botrytis is really, we're stuck with a lot of very specific products and a lot of the softer chemistries don't work as well. Or some of, even some of the older chemistries that are a little more broad spectrum don't work quite as well on Botrytis. So you're really stuck with these very targeted site-specific fungicides. So the backbone of a management program looks something like this. So these are like Tops and M, Switch, Elevate, Pristine, Ravral and Luna type products. And these are just some of the different molecules and what they look like. But what's happened is over time since we've been using these products, we've had the development of fungicide resistance. And fungicide resistance occurs over time. And it's when a fungal population shifts from being sensitive to those different chemicals to being predominantly resistant. And that's sort of the issue that we're most concerned about when we think about Botrytis. We've done studies and looked at this in strawberries and in grapes and in blueberries. And really there are certain frac codes that just seem to have more resistance. So this is a strawberry study that we did in 2019. And this is the rough percentages that we had based on the various modes of action. And I should say that what's in here as these different frac codes, this is a numbering system that helps identify some of the different fungicides that we use. And this, these are the corresponding trade names that you would see if you were to purchase those products. So anyway, this is a general idea of what we've been finding and what levels of resistance. So that really makes managing this disease a little more complicated, is that now some of the fungicides of developing this high level of resistance. So really how should we manage betrayed us going forward? It makes cultural practices even more important when you have resistance being around, preventing infection, using an effective chemical before there's an infection, makes the chemical more effective. It also makes the chemical last longer. Rotating our frac codes, which are our different chemicals and how they work, and then using any kind of multi-site products. These are products that are more broad spectrum that really, uh, unfortunately, I haven't had time to go into much today, but a lot of people have helped me be able to give this talk. And I just wanted to say thanks. And all the funding agencies that have helped us. And I will also be available on Friday for an open panel forum to talk about various questions. But thanks so much for your attention. And I hope you've enjoyed the Michigan AG ideas conference. Thank you. Have a good day. Hi everyone! Thanks for the- sorry I wasn't able to get to all the messages- Thanks for the help and stuff in the chat. Had to keep my like I wasn't I couldn't do anything else on my computer Wile it was presenting which made it look like I would like click and try to like go to the chat to answer you guys questions and then it would stop. So yes. Sorry about that. Anyways. Thank you all so much again for coming. While I pull up the PowerPoints with all of the RUP info. I just want to I'm going to try and answer a couple of the questions. One of them was there 2022 version of the fruit management guide? Yes, there is. Tim just refuses to update the picture. So if you want to send them an email and tell me should update the picture, feel free to do so. There was a question about that. There's a question about if there's different types of powdery mildew. There's like different like varieties. So like the type of powdery mildew that would infect pumpkin, for example, wouldn't be the same type, but wouldn't necessarily be the same type of powdery mildew that would infect a blueberry. But the type that affects the pumpkin might also infect a cucumber because they're the same family. I don't know any specifics, but just kind of a quick and dirty answer. And then there's another one. Another person asked about honey berries. Email me, I can send you some stuff. Anyways, So thank you all for being here. Like I said, like I mentioned before, we have a Friday panel discussion. If you have any pictures, e-mail them to me or Mike, and we would love to talk about them and you can get the expert opinions. You can send picture or we can show a picture to Tim and he'll tell you what it is. And if you have questions other times or they're not necessarily as relevant to me or pathology or maybe it's a vegetable. You can reach out to your local extension office or ask