References and Suggestions for Further Reading

Aaronson, Daniel, Jacob Faber, Daniel Hartley, Bhashkar Mazumder, and Patrick Sharkey. 2021. “The Long-Run Effects of the 1930s HOLC ‘Redlining’ Maps on Place-Based Measures of Economic Opportunity and Socioeconomic Success.” Regional Science and Urban Economics 86, 103622.

Aaronson, Daniel, Daniel Hartley, and Bhashkar Mazumder. 2021. “The Effects of the 1930s HOLC ‘Redlining’ Maps.” American Economic Journal: Economic Policy.

Anders, John. 2020. “The Long Run Effects of De Jure Discrimination in the Credit Market: How Redlining Increased Crime.” Working Paper. San Antonio, TX.

Appel, Ian, and Jordan Nickerson. 2016. Pockets of Poverty: The Long-Term Effects of Redlining. Atlanta, GA.

Billings, Stephen B., David J. Deming, and Jonah Rockoff. 2014. “School Segregation, Educational Attainment, and Crime: Evidence from the End of Busing in Charlotte-Mecklenburg.” The Quarterly Journal of Economics 129 (1): 435–476.

Card, David, and Jesse Rothstein. 2007. “Racial Segregation and the Black-White Test Score Gap.” Journal of Public Economics 91(11–12). North-Holland: 2158–2184.

Charles, Kerwin Kofi, and Erik Hurst. 2002. “The Transition to Home Ownership and the Black-White Wealth Gap.” Review of Economics and Statistics.

Clampet-Lundquist, Susan. 2004a. “HOPE VI Relocation: Moving to New Neighborhoods and Building New Ties.” Housing Policy Debate 15(2). Routledge: 415–447.

Clampet-Lundquist, Susan. 2004b. “Moving Over or Moving Up? Short-Term Gains and Losses for Relocated HOPE VI Families.” Cityscape 7(1): 57–80.

Clampet-Lundquist, Susan. 2007. “No More ’Bois Ball.” Journal of Adolescent Research 22(3) 298–323. doi:10.1177/0743558407300115.

Clampet-Lundquist, Susan. 2010. “‘Everyone Had Your Back’: Social Ties, Perceived Safety, and Public Housing Relocation.” City & Community 9(1): 87–108.

DiAngelo, Robin. 2018. White Fragility: Why It’s So Hard for White People to Talk About Racism. Beacon Press.

Fishback, Price V., Jessica LaVoice, Allison Shertzer, Randall Walsh. 2020. “Race, Risk, and the Emergence of Federal Redlining.” National Bureau of Economics Research Working Paper 28146.

Galster, George, and Erin Godfrey. 2005. “By Words and Deeds: Racial Steering by Real Estate Agents in the U.S. in 2000.” Journal of the American Planning Association 71(3): 251–268.

Hillier, Amy E. 2003. “Redlining and the Home Owners’ Loan Corporation.” Journal of Urban History 29(4). SAGE Publications: 394–420.

Jackson, Kenneth T. 1985. Crabgrass Frontier: The Suburbanization of the United States. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Jones, Miranda R, Ana V Diez-Roux, Anjum Hajat, Kiarri N Kershaw, Marie S O’Neill, Eliseo Guallar, Wendy S Post, Joel D Kaufman, and Ana Navas-Acien. 2014. “Race/Ethnicity, Residential Segregation, and Exposure to Ambient Air Pollution: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA).” American Journal of Public Health 104(11): 2130–2137.

Julian, Elizabeth K. 2007. “An Unfinished Agenda: Why It’s Time for Fair Housing and Community Development to Reunite to Fight Vestiges of Segregation.” Shelterforce, no. 152.

Julian, Elizabeth K. 2008. “Fair Housing and Community Development: Time to Come Together.” Indiana Law Review 41.

Kendi, Ibram X. 2016. Stamped from the Beginning: The Definitive History of Racist Ideas in America. PublicAffairs.

Kendi, Ibram X. 2019. How to Be an Antiracist. One World.

Kim, Sunwoong. 2003. “Long-Term Appreciation of Owner-Occupied Single-Family House Prices in Milwaukee Neighborhoods.” Urban Geography 24(3): 212–231.

Krivo, Lauren J., and Robert L. Kaufman. 2004. “Housing and Wealth Inequality: Racial-Ethnic Differences in Home Equity in the United States.” Demography 41(3): 585–605.

Kushner, James A. 2008. “Urban Neighborhood Regeneration and the Phases of Community Evolution after World War II in the United States.” Indiana Law Review 41.

Logan, John R. 2011. “Separate and Unequal: The Neighborhood Gap for Blacks, Hispanics and Asians in Metropolitan America.” Brown University.

Ludwig, Jens, Jeffrey R. Kling, Lawrence F. Katz, Lisa Sanbonmatsu, Jeffrey B. Liebman, Greg J. Duncan, and Ronald C. Kessler. 2008. “What Can We Learn about Neighborhood Effects from the Moving to Opportunity Experiment?” American Journal of Sociology 114(1): 144–188.

Manson, Steven, Jonathan Schroeder, David Van Riper, Tracy Kugler, and Steven Ruggles. 2021. “IPUMS National Historical Geographic Information System: Version 15.0 [Dataset].” IPUMS.

Massey, Douglas S. 1990. “American Apartheid: Segregation and the Making of the Underclass.” American Journal of Sociology 96(2): 329–357.

Massey, Douglas S., Len Albright, Rebecca Casciano, Elizabeth Derickson, and David N. Kinsey. 2013. Climbing Mount Laurel: The Struggle for Affordable Housing and Social Mobility in an American Suburb. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Mehlhorn, Dmitri. 1998. “A Requiem for Blockbusting: Law, Economics, and Race-Based Real Estate Speculation.” Fordham Law Review 67(3): 1145–1192.

National Commission on Fair Housing and Equal Opportunity. 2008. “The Future of Fair Housing.” Executive Summary.

Nelson, Robert K., LaDale Winling, Richard Marciano, Nathan Connolly, and et al. 2020. “Mapping Inequality.” American Panorama.

Reardon, Sean F., Lindsay Fox, and Joseph Townsend. 2015. “Neighborhood Income Composition by Household Race and Income, 1990–2009.” The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 660(1): 78–97.

Rothstein, Richard. 2017. The Color of Law: A Forgotten History of How Our Government Segregated America. New York, NY: Liveright.

Rothwell, Jonathan T., and Douglas S. Massey. 2009. “The Effect of Density Zoning on Racial Segregation in U.S. Urban Areas.” Urban Affairs Review 44(6): 779–806.

Rothwell, Jonathan T., and Douglas S. Massey. 2010. “Density Zoning and Class Segregation in U.S. Metropolitan Areas*.” Social Science Quarterly 91(5): 1123–1143.

Van Dusen, Gerald. 2019. Detroit’s Birwood Wall: Hatred and Healing in the West Eight Mile Community. Charleston, SC: The History Press.

Van Dusen, Gerald. 2020. Detroit’s Sojourner Truth Housing Riot of 1942: Prelude to the Race Riot of 1943. Charleston, SC: The History Press.

Williams, Jeremy. 2009. Detroit: The Black Bottom Community. Arcadia Publishing.

Winling, LeDale C., Todd M. Michney. 2021. “The Roots of Redlining: Academic, Governmental, and Professional Networks in the Making of the New Deal Lending Regime.” Journal of American History, 108(1):42–69. 

Woodin, Brian. 2021. “Imagined Boundaries and Lived Geographies: How past patterns of inequality observed in present Land Bank Authority data can inform the future of community redevelopment.” The State Land Bank Authority of Michigan. June 16.

Xu, Wenfei. 2021. “Legacies of Institutionalized Redlining: A Comparison Between Speculative and Implemented Mortgage Risk Maps in Chicago, Illinois.” Housing Policy Debate,

 This research was conducted by Michigan State University Assistant Professor and Extension Specialist Craig Wesley Carpenter, Ph.D. (@DrCWCarpenter or