James Flore

James Flore

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Professor Emeritus
Department of Horticulture



Quick links: Education   Publications    Research

Joined Department

December 1, 1974


35% Teaching
65% Research


Ph.D.1975, Michigan State University, Horticulture/plant physiology 
M.S., 1973, Michigan State University, Horticulture
B.S., 1968, Michigan State University, Horticulture


Research Impact: Research has centered around whole plant productivity and response to the environment, using photosynthesis and carbon partitioning as the basic processes governing growth. Recent impacts are:

  • Development of a technique based on automated salt spray during a rain event to stop cherries from cracking.
  • Established foliage damage threshold levels for mites on sour cherry and apple, based on productivity and whole tree photosynthesis.
  • Orchard design based on light interception and canopy shape.

Generating fundamental knowledge:

  • Carbon assimilation by fruit crops
  • Carbon partitioning in fruit crops, c)the effect of biotic and abiotic stress on assimilation and carbon partitioning
  • Understanding the response of trees to biotic stress
  • Establishing damage thresholds for stone fruit based on a carbon based model

Current Research in biotic stress: We have completed work on the effect of simulated leaf damage for strawberry, apple, and have initiated experiments with cherry.

Recent Publications

  • Gustavo A. Lobos, Paolo Sabbatini , Jim Flore, Alejandro del Pozo, Jorge B. Retamales. 2007. Crop Load and Time of Defoliation in Imperial Gala Apple Trees: Effects on Leaf Photosynthesis, Fruit Growth, and Yield.View PDF
  • Jim Flore, Phil Schwallier, Paolo Sabbatini and Lynne Sage, MSU. 2007. Management of Cropload on Honeycrisp to optimize fruit quality and return bloom. View PDF
  • Flore, J.A.; Tozzini, L.; Sage, L.; and Lakso, A.L. (2009) Poster: Estimating the Environmental Footprint of Michigan Apple and Cherry Orchards, Presented at the Great Lakes Fruit, Vegetable and Farm Market Expo, Dec. 8-10, 2009, Grand Rapids, MI. View PDF
  • Flore, J.A.; Schwallier, P.; Sage, L. (2009) Poster: Effects of Crop Load, Time of Thinning and Seed Number on Return Bloom and Bitter Pit of 'Honeycrisp' Apple, Presented at the Great Lakes Fruit, Vegetable and Farm Market Expo, Dec. 8-10, 2009, Grand Rapids, MI. View PDF
  • Sage, Lynnell E. and J.A. Flore (2010) Oral Presentation: Regulation of Return Bloom in ‘Honeycrisp’ Apple: Fruit per Spur, Presented at the American Society for Horticultural Science Annual Conference, August 2-5, 2010, Palm Desert, CA. View PDF
  • Sage, Lynnell E., J.A. Flore, L. Tozzini (2010) Abstract: Regulation of Return Bloom in 'Honeycrisp' Apple: Fruit per Spur. HortScience Annual Conference Program Abstracts, Oral Session 40: Crop Physiology: Fruit Crops. View PDF