Assessment of the Policy Enabling Environment for Large-Scale Food Fortification (LSFF) —With an Application to Kenya—


December 5, 2022 - Veronique Theriault, Lilian Kirimi, <>, Ephiphania Kinyumu, and <>

Food insecurity, including micronutrient malnutrition, remains a challenge in many settings worldwide. As micronutrient deficiencies are primarily driven by poor diets, large-scale food fortification (LSFF) programs that improve the nutritional quality of commonly consumed foods have the potential to improve a population’s nutritional status. The success of LSFF programs depends heavily on the “policy enabling environment”, understood here to encompass all aspects of the policy landscape that influence and either enable or disable fortification activities.

In this study, we present a novel framework to assess the policy enabling environment for large-scale food fortification. It can be applied either at one point in time or over time (i.e., to monitor and evaluate changes in the policy enabling environment). We conceptualize the policy enabling environment as having three domains: (1) policy agenda setting; (2) policy implementation; and (3) policy monitoring and evaluation. Policy agenda setting encompasses policy prioritization (placing LSFF on the formal policy agenda) and policy formulation. Policy implementation spans all activities through which laws and regulations are put into effect. Policy monitoring and evaluation refers to overseeing and enforcing the implementation of the laws and regulations, evaluating the policy to understand whether it is achieving the desired outcomes and impacts, and reforming if necessary.



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