Basic Farm Business Information

Collect a description of the operation, as well as short term and long term production goals.

AFNR Legislation

Ignorance of the law is not an excuse. 

Economic Impacts

Economic impacts have global, national, state, regional and local implications.

Basic Types of AFNR Businesses

Identify types of ownership in an AFNR business such as a sole proprietorship, partnership, corp, co-op, etc.

International Agriculture

Understand agricultural opportunities around the world and how each of them build off of and/or impact the other.

World and US Food Production

Understand agricultural production around the world and the US and how diversity in each area contributes to the world’s food supply.

Loans and Credits

Understand the purpose of loans and credit and how they impact your financial planning and future financial endeavors for you or your AFNR business.


Understand the reasons behind filling out tax forms and practice filling out basic tax forms.

AFNR Regulations

Understand how current laws and regulations affect how to create, run, and keep records for agricultural businesses.


Understand what a stock is and its purpose and role in AFNR businesses, as well as the difference between stocks and commodities.

Future Markets

Understand what a market is, especially commodity markets, and how futures apply to the buying and selling of commodities throughout the US and world.


Marketing utilizes strategies to effectively market a good or service to a consumer.

Components of AFNR Business Plans

Understand the components of an agricultural business plan and how they benefit the business.

Assess Business Plans

Once you know what a proper business plan is, you can use those skills to determine whether or not a current business plan is appropriate or still needs some work.

Create a Business Plan

Include strategies to use when creating a business plan from scratch and making sure you include all necessary aspects.

Cash Flow Analysis

Create a data sheet on the business or company’s input and output of money during a certain time frame.

Distribution Channels

Understand how products move through the proper channels including wholesalers, retailers, distributors, and manufacturers to market products to consumers.


An applied field of economics is concerned with the application of economic theory in optimizing the production and distribution of food and fiber.


Understanding what a tariff is and its impact on agricultural products being traded.

Types of Ag Business

Understand the types of agricultural businesses and the role and purpose that they serve in this industry.

Business Structures

Understand the major types of agribusiness structures in the United States.

Current Market Trends

Analyze and interpret data from research based on demographics, preferences, needs and buying habits in order to forecast future trends.

Effects of Agricultural Marketing

Understand the basics of buzz words on labels (gluten, hormones, GMOs etc.) and how their use on products affect the purchases of consumers, in a helpful or misleading way.

Laws, Policies of Agencies

Agricultural laws deal with those pertaining to any and all things agriculture, including but not limited to: infrastructure, seed, water, fertilizer, pesticide…

Organic vs. Conventional

Develop a clear understanding of organic versus conventional farming methods.

Land Treatment and Application Processes

Identify field orientation and mapping.

Organic Certification

Organic is a labeling term that indicates that the food or other agricultural product has been produced through approved methods.

GMO Regulations

GM, or genetically modified, products are regulated by three different agencies in the United States: the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA)

Traditional vs. Sustainable

Management practices make a big impact on the sustainability of agricultural endeavors.

Genetically Modified Organisms

A genetically modified organism (GMO) is an organism whose genetic makeup has been modified in a laboratory.

Implications of Policy on Agriculturalists

Government and agency policy can force regulations on AFNR activities.

Types of Issues in Agriculture

Identify current issues within the agriculture industry and categorize current issues into basic categories (trade, policy, energy, technology, infrastructure, etc.).

Research Current Policy

Public policy related to AFRN is constantly changing and evolving.

Evaluate Policy

Public policy evaluation is a process in which you examine the content, implementation or impact of a policy.

Analyzing Alternatives

Through the evaluation process questions may be raised about the validity of a current policy and possible amendments that may be made.

Identify Stakeholders

A stakeholder is a person with an interest or concern in something, especially a business.

Informing Opinions

In order to properly consider public input and make an appropriate decision, you need to have the facts.

Social Impacts

Social impacts include not only the farmer or employer but also employees and the surrounding public within the area of impact of AFNR activities.

Balancing Impacts

Balancing the economic, social and environmental impacts is the core to sustainable AFNR practices.

Business and Personal Finance

This is the ability to put together and maintain regular records for an AFNR business and/or personal means.

Examine Company Hierarchy

Understand the organizational structure of the business and its purpose in helping the company function at its best.

Goal Setting

Understand the purpose behind setting business goals as well as how to set SMART goals (specific, measurable, attainable, relevant, timely).


Sustainability seeks to sustain farmers, resources, and communities by promoting farming practices and methods that are profitable, environmentally sound and good for communities.

Impacts of Decisions

Understand how decisions can impact the agricultural industry and the world.

Current AFNR Issues

Being able to identify and research current agricultural issues and be able to describe both sides of the issue in an intelligent way to help them make a decision on where they stand.

Career Clusters

Locate and interpret career information for at least one career cluster.

Educational and Job Requirements

Identify educational and credentialing requirements for career cluster and pathways.

Career Research

Identify and explore various career pathways in AFNR.

Employability Skills

Employability skills or competencies young people need to enter the workforce.

Personal Finance

Management of money and financial decisions for a person including budgeting, savings, investments, and future planning.

Workplace Communication

This includes communicating effectively through written, oral, and non verbal methods.

Personal and Career Goal Setting

Include strategies to utilize and feel confident in setting personal and career goals for your future.

Career and College Prep

Employers want graduates who can think mathematically, communicate, create, work in teams, and solve problems.

Utilizing Technology

Find creative ways to utilize technology that is new to the AFNR industry as well as the social environment.

USDA Regulations

The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) sets many laws and regulations to ensure safe handling of animals, food sources and other agriculture commodities.


The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)  sets and enforces protective workplace safety and health standards.

Site Policies

Each worksite and school has differing safety standards and policies.  Understand and follow the unique standards and policies specific to individual businesses.

Site Map

Identify and locate safety equipment within the site (e.g., fire extinguishers, chemical showers, etc.).

Standard Operating Procedures

A standard operating procedure (SOP) is a set of step-by-step instructions to help carry out daily functions. SOPs can help keep a learning environment safe.

Food Safety

Develop procedures to insure safe handling of a consumable product using GMPs (Good Management Practices).

Designing Animal Handling Facilities and Using Equipment

Plan and develop housing to fit the needs and environment of different animal species. Understand how, what and when to use equipment while raising animals.

Government Regulation

Identify the current regulations for the production and handling of livestock and companion animals and why they are in place.

Current Consumption Trends

Recognize the impact of current consumption trends on the animal industry.

Record Keeping

Collect proper production records including application dates and rates, crop yields, planting and harvest dates by yield and field, emergency field response, maintenance and equipment calibration activity records.

Nutrient Plan

Develop a nutrient plan with an emphasis on timely application for optimum plant growth.

Scouting & Crop Management

Evaluate propagation materials for pests and disease, prepare soil for planting with the addition of amendments such as lime and fertilizer.

Greenhouse/Hoop House Production and Management

Greenhouse/hoop house production and management would include things such as planting dates and schedules, temperature control methods and schedules, watering system schedules and methods, pest control schedules and methods, and harvest schedules.

Crop Production and Management

A discussion of crop production looks specifically at field, row, or orchard crops. 


Different types of agricultural crops require different washing methods.


The type of crop being produced affects the packing system used.

Storage Temperatures and Humidity

The temperature and humidity that crops are stored at varies with the type of crop being produced.

Basic Operation Business Information

Collect a description of the operation, short term and long term production goals, use of growing media and propagation techniques.

Environmental Impacts

Environmental systems are a delicate balance of system inputs and outputs.

History of Biotechnology

Using biotechnology in the AFNR field has improved production over the years.

Current and Potential Biotechnology Applications

Biotechnology is a rapidly growing field in agriculture.

Biotechnology in Food

Biotechnology is utilized to develop new tools for improving productivity both in and out of the food system.

Biotechnology in Agriculture

Agricultural biotechnology is a collection of techniques used to improve the agricultural industry.

Aquaponics and Hydroponics

Aquaponics and hydroponics involve the production of plants using water intensive systems.


A biofuel is a fuel derived directly from living matter.

Biotechnology in the Environment

Biotechnology is typically thought of in the context of food and drug production, however the utilization of biotechnology in the environment is an ever growing concept.